Tip of the North Fork: History of Rail Service to Greenport and Surrounding Territory

West Neck Harbor, Wades Beach (October 23, 2005)
West Neck Harbor, Wades Beach (October 23, 2005)

The Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) was completed to the village of Greenport in 1844.  Its original design as a rail link to New England ferried passengers from the North Fork of Long Island to Rhode Island where they connected with a railroad to Boston.  Progress proved the scheme unnecessary by 1850 and the Long Island developed intra-island traffic to Brooklyn and later New York.[1]  As a gateway to the East End, the railroad has provided both passenger and freight service from the time when the iron horse was the primary means of transportation to the modern era where vacationers enjoy the seaport amenities of Long Island’s northern tip.  The following is a chronicle of rail service to Greenport with a look at the history of the neighboring communities.

Rail Service Arrives in Greenport

Envisioned as the shortest and fastest connection between Brooklyn and Boston, the LIRR was chartered on April 24, 1834 by the New York State Legislature.  The charter provided for the railroad to lease the Brooklyn & Jamaica Railroad, use its rails, and construct the LIRR to Long Island’s northeastern tip where a ferry would take passengers to Rhode Island and connect to a Boston-bound railroad.  No competition was anticipated since engineers considered it impossible to build a railroad along the Connecticut waterfront.[2]  The concept of a railroad in the center of Long Island through the Pine Barrens was quicker and made more sense and eliminated the three-day long trip by horse-drawn coach with two overnight stops.[3]

Orient Point County Park, Long Island Sound (August 24, 2012)
Orient Point County Park, Long Island Sound (August 24, 2012)

After several years of construction and a few financial setups, the road was completed.  ninety-Five mile run from South Ferry in Brooklyn, Greenport was chosen as the waterfront terminus because of its developing harbor.  An inaugural roundtrip train operated on July 27, 1844.  LIRR officials including J. Francis Que, road president George B. Fiske, and the Brooklyn mayor, traveled on a reserved coach powered by a steam locomotive named the “Post Boy.”  The press, stockholders, and guests rode in coaches that were followed by several flat cars loaded with wood, barrels, and food and beverage provisions for the Greenport festivities which began upon arrival.  Two days later on July 29 regular train service to Greenport commenced on a three and a half-hour schedule.  Greenport Station featured a wooden depot building and boarding platform that was a short distance from the waterfront.  From there passengers boarded the steam ferry for Stonington, Connecticut to connect with the Providence & Boston Railroad.[4]

Greenport Station
Historical Fact
Date
Station and depot building opened July 27, 1844
Regular passenger service began July 29, 1844
Depot building destroyed by fire July 4, 1870
Depot building and platform erected September – October 1870
Depot building sold and relocated Summer 1892 (author’s analysis)
Depot building and platform erected Spring – Summer 1892 (author’s analysis)
Station agency and depot building closed September 4, 1967
Depot building reopened Sundays only Summer 1968
High-level concrete platform and ramp constructed (with a nine-post gable canopy and two partitions made of steel, enamel, and Plexiglas painted red-brick, mint, and light beige) Winter 1996/97 – Spring 1998

The LIRR enjoyed several years of Boston-bound traffic. However, a Connecticut railroad was eventually built and in 1850 the LIRR went into the hands of a receiver.  Subsequently, the Long Island campaigned for local freight and passenger traffic.  By the end of the nineteenth century, Greenport became a railroad center with a depot building, freight house, turntable, shipping dock, and storage yard.  Some Pullman cars ran from Greenport as far as Pittsburgh and Washington, D.C.[5]

Early Greenport

The present day village of Greenport and surrounding area on Long Island’s North Fork are part of the town of Southold in eastern Suffolk County. Orient Point is at the end of this narrow neck of land running east from Greenport about ten miles. Southold town also includes Plum Island, Great and Little Hog Neck Islands, and Fishers Island which extend in a line about twenty miles beyond Long Island’s easterly tip.  Other communities in this region are Orient and East Marion, and Pipe’s Neck and Arshamomague to the west of Greenport village.  Pipe’s Neck was once the estate home of Longhouse John Conklin who fled to Connecticut during the American Revolution.  Pipe’s Neck and Pipe’s Cove got their name from one of Conklin’s descendants who made the staves for the great pipes or hogheads used as oil containers by whalers.[6]

North Fork Mile Marker 28, Dan McCarthy as Ben Franklin, Orient (May 16, 2015)
North Fork Mile Marker 28, Dan McCarthy as Ben Franklin, Orient (May 16, 2015)

Greenport was first settled by New Haven colonists in May 1648 when some Southold land belonging to the Youngs family was transferred in title to the Booth family.  It remained part of the Booth family until it was sold and subdivided into smaller plots for early homebuilders.[7]

Greenport became a shipping and shipbuilding center. At first, small vessels carried produce to Connecticut.  Later, however, larger ships traveled to New York City and New England.  Whaling began in 1790 when brothers Nathaniel and Hudson Corwin equipped several ships to hunt whales.  Ultimately, fifteen whalers operated out of the harbor.  In the early nineteenth century, shipbuilding began.  The first vessel was completed in 1834.  In its heyday, there were many as six shipyards along the waterfront.  However, by 1999 there was only one remaining.[8]

North Fork Mile Marker 26, Orient (May 16, 2015)
North Fork Mile Marker 26, Orient (May 16, 2015)

Prior to the Revolution, a considerable part of the village site was the farm of Captain David Webb.  However, in what was the first step in the creation of the village, the farmland was sold at public auction on March 23, 1820.  Seven years later Main Street was laid out and the village was later incorporated in 1838.  It is bounded by Greenport Harbor to the south, Sterling Creek to the east, Arshmamogue to the west, and Long Island Sound to the north.  Before the Revolution, Greenport was known as Winter Harbor and then Stirling in honor of Lord Stirling, a prominent Long Island landowner.  What became Greenport village was once known as Greenhill.  In 1831 citizens voted to change Greenhill to Green Port, which a few years later was combined into one word.[9]   

Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)
Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)

By 1875, Greenport had a population of more than 2,000.  There were twenty stores, five hotels, seven churches, a few boarding houses, and a railroad station.  On July 4, 1870, the original depot building was destroyed by fire.  Construction of a new building and boarding platform commenced in September 1870 under the direction of Charles Hallett of Riverhead.  Completed the following month, it was on the north side of the double-tracks leading to the waterfront a few yards west of the intersection of Third Street and the right-of-way.  Replacing an older structure, a new engine house and turntable was added on the north side of the tracks west of the station and a few yards east of Fourth Street.  A new dock and wharf at the end of the right-of-way was also built.[10]

Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)
Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)

By the 1870s the LIRR’s primary western waterfront terminus was in Long Island City.  There were typically two roundtrips daily except on Sundays and in summer when more trains were added.  Westbound service was in the morning and mid-afternoon, and eastbound service was in the early afternoon and early evening.[11]

Shelter Island

While providing service to Greenport, the LIRR also made other communities easily accessible.  Since the nineteenth century, vacationers have arrived every year “like pilgrims to worship and enjoy the beauty of land, sky, and sea.”[12]  One of the most picturesque communities is Shelter Island.  The history of European settlement begins with James Farrett, the agent of Lord Stirling, who acquired Long Island and other land from the English colony of Plymouth.  Farrett chose Shelter Island for himself but sold it to Stephen Goodyear, a New Haven merchant, in early 1641.  Goodyear later sold it to a group of merchants (Thomas Middleton, Thomas Rouse, Nathaniel Sylvester, and Constant Sylvester) for six hundred pounds of sugar. In papers confirming the island’s sale on December 27, 1652, Manhanset Indians conveyed land called “Ahaquatawamok” or “Island sheltered by islands.”  In 1673, Nathaniel Sylvester, the only member of the group to live on the island, became sole owner.  In fact, as late as 1674 it was called Sylvester Island.[13]

Shelter Island (October 23, 2005)
Shelter Island (October 23, 2005)

Known as the founders of Shelter Island, young sugar merchant Nathaniel Sylvester and his wife Grissell Brinley were married in England and sailed for America in early 1652.  They later had eleven children.  Sylvester and his associates used the island’s white oak to make sugar barrels used in trade with Barbados.  It is unclear whether the Sylvesters were Quakers but it is believed they detested religious intolerance and succored New England Quakers.  Nathaniel died in 1680, leaving the island equally to his five sons who placed a monument to their father at the head of Gardiner’s Creek.  The Sylvester family sold one quarter of the 8,000-acre island to William Nicholl in 1695 and five years later 1,000 acres were sold to George Havens of Newport.  Shelter Island became a New York State township in 1730, with William Nicholl II as the first supervisor.[14]

A major turning point toward development occurred in 1871 when a group of men from Brooklyn purchased land that became Shelter Island Heights.  The following summer, a boarding house named the Prospect House opened for business.  A few months later, a Massachusetts group bought 200 acres across from Dering Harbor and opened the Manhanset House in 1874.  The boarding houses transformed Shelter Island into a location for prominent New York and Brooklyn residents and other vacationers to spend their summers.[15]

Shelter Island Ferry, Greenport Harbor (July 4, 2015)
Shelter Island Ferry, Greenport Harbor (July 4, 2015)

The Manhanset was sadly destroyed by fire in 1910 marking the end of an era.  Thereafter, summer cottages replaced boarding houses in communities on the island such as the village of Dering Harbor, The Heights, Westneck, Montclair Colony, Westmoreland Farms, Silver Beach, South Ferry Hills, Ram Island, and Hay Beach.[16]  The village of Dering Harbor owes its formation to wealthy “cottagers” who were afraid that key services that the Manhanset House provided, such as fresh water, fuel, and sewage disposal, would be lost.  They purchased the site for $85,000 and formed the village in 1916.  At 200 acres, Dering Harbor is the state’s tiniest incorporated village.  It lies on the north side of Shelter Island overlooking the harbor.  It was named after Thomas Dering, a Boston merchant who married a Sylvester descendent and later became the town supervisor.[17]

Shelter Island’s population in 1998 was 2,330.  It is only accessible by ferry.  To reach the island from Greenport, the North Ferry Company, incorporated in 1980, provides daily service from its dock a short walk from the railroad station.  There was discussion in the 1930s to build bridges for better accessibility.  Luckily, they never materialized.  Instead, there has been continuous efforts to maintain the island’s setting.  In 1980, 2,039 acres covering thirty percent of the island called Mashomack Peninsula were sold to the Nature Conservancy and today remain undeveloped.[18]

East Marion, Orient, Orient Point & Fishers Island

The land east of Greenport to Orient Point is typically two to three miles in width.  The first inhabitants of what is now East Marion and Orient were the Orient Focus People who lived about 1,000 BC.  They disappeared before the arrival of the Corchaug Indians in approximately 900 AD.  The Corchaug called the area Poquatuc and were there when Peter Hallock purchased the land in about 1647 after the establishment of Southold.  Settlers called the area Oysterponds because of the shellfish abundance. Orient and East Marion were later called Oysterponds Lower Neck and Oysterponds Upper Neck, respectively.[19]

Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)
Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)

While farming remained the principle occupation, trading vessels operated during the colonial period.  By 1840 more than thirty schooners operated out of the harbor, carrying fish and produce.  In 1836 the two communities split.   The name Orient was chosen to reflect the area’s easternmost position on the North Fork.  East Marion was first named Rocky Point but later changed in honor of General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox of the Revolutionary War.  Just two miles east of Greenport, East Marion’s population was 350 in 1875.  At the community’s east end, the land is contracted to a narrow isthmus, less than half-mile in width.  East Marion Lake is a fresh body of water lying between the main road and Orient Harbor, the name given to that part of the bay which indents the shore.  Today, the population in the summer months is over 900 as there are many second-home owners taking advantage of the local fishing, kayaking, and boating.[20]

Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)
Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)

Orient and Orient Point lie east of East Marion.  The population was about 700 in 1875 and remains approximately the same today.  In Orient, a commerce area is located along Orient Harbor with many small shops.  Some nineteenth century buildings are still standing.  Village House currently is the centerpiece of the Oysterponds Historical Society’s collection of buildings.  It was built in 1798 as a one-story house for Augustus Griffin, Orient’s early historian.  In 1832, Griffin added a second story to expand into a boarding house.  The building was later purchased by Samuel Gilson Vail and in the 1870s was renovated to include Italianate features such as the full veranda and arched openings.  In the 1880s, Samuel Vail’s daughter-in-law, Mrs. Jeremiah Vail, took over the boarding house and hosted summer visitors until her death in 1898.  The building remained in the Vail family until its purchase in 1944 by the historical society.  Another building maintained by the society is the Old Point Schoolhouse.  Originally called the “Down-Neck School,” it was built in 1888 to serve the community but closed in 1930 for lack of students.  It lost its cupola in the great hurricane of 1938 and was acquired by the society in 1949.[21]

Village House, Orient (October 12, 2014)
Village House, Orient (October 12, 2014)
Old Point Schoolhouse, Orient (October 12, 2014)
Old Point Schoolhouse, Orient (October 12, 2014)
Methodist Church, Orient (October 12, 2014)
Methodist Church, Orient (October 12, 2014)

Orient Point became a resort location in the late nineteenth century two hotels, two churches, and a few stores.  Built in 1796, the Orient Point Inn hosted guests such as President Grover Cleveland.  It was later closed in the 1960s and demolished.  Today, Orient Point is no longer a resort area but rather a small seaside community.  Regularly scheduled ferry service to New London, Connecticut, began in the 1930s.[22] 

On the eastern extremity of Orient Point, a road lined with numerous houses leads to the point.  In the waters off the point is the Orient Point Lighthouse, nicknamed the Coffee Pot.  Marking the end of Oyster Point Reef on the western side of Plum Gut, it was built in 1899 and manned by civilian keepers until the United States Coast Guard took it over in 1939.  It was automated in 1954 and Guardsmen lived in the house on rotating tours until 1966.  In 1970 local outcry saved it from demolition.  In 1973, work began to restore it.  The sixty-four foot tower flashes a white light every five seconds.[23]

Orient Point and Plum Gut (August 24, 2012)
Orient Point and Plum Gut (August 24, 2012)
Orient Point "Coffee Pot" Lighthouse, Plum Gut (August 24, 2012)
Orient Point “Coffee Pot” Lighthouse, Plum Gut (August 24, 2012)

Running southwest from Orient Point for a distance of five miles is a long sand beach named Long Beach.  The body of water between the sand beach and the peninsula is called Long Beach Bay.  On the east side of the sand beach is Orient Beach State Park.  It was created when the community deeded a bulk of land to the state in 1929.  At the western extremity of the sand beach is the Long Beach Island Lighthouse, nicknamed Bug Light.  It was built in 1871 at the cost $17,000 on a shoal to the southwest of Long Beach Point and served as a marker to the entrance of Orient and Greenport Harbors.  The lighthouse originally.  Its lantern formerly gave a red light visible for twelve miles.[24]

Gardiners Bay and New London, Connecticut Ferry, Orient Point (August 24, 2012)
Gardiners Bay and New London, Connecticut Ferry, Orient Point (August 24, 2012)

About a mile east of Orient Point is the three-mile long Plum Island.  A few miles east of this is Great Gull Island and Little Gull Island.  Another ten miles northeast of Long Island, just ten miles off the coast of Connecticut, is Fishers Island.  It may have received its name from a navigator named Vischers who was aboard a vessel captained by Dutch explorer Adrian Block who landed on the island in 1614.  Future Connecticut state governor John Winthrop Jr. purchased Fishers Island from local Indians in 1644.  Upon his inauguration as governor in 1657 he ensured that the island was in the state’s royal charter.  However, ownership was confused by another royal charter in 1664, granting it to the Duke of York.  Thus began the beginning of a 200-year battle for ownership.  Finally, in 1879, a committee of officials from New York and Connecticut awarded Fishers Island to New York.  Today, ferry service is only by way of Connecticut and the island remains a summer getaway for the rich and famous.[25]

Gardiners Bay, Orient Point (August 24, 2012)
Gardiners Bay, Orient Point (August 24, 2012)

Greenport in the Gilded Age 

In the Gilded Age, Greenport continued to be an industry leader.  Several factories were built to process menhaden for paint oil.  Oystering was also a big industry, hitting a peak in 1936 when 2.5 million bushels were shipped.[26]

Although the discovery of oil in Pennsylvania killed the whaling industry in the 1860s, revenue loss was partially offset by the growth of tourism and, like its North Fork neighbors, Greenport also became a summer getaway location.  Tourism in the 1870s and 1880s was aided by expanded LIRR service to Long Island City and Brooklyn which grew from two roundtrips a day in the 1870s to three roundtrips by the 1890s.  Service was also available to the South Fork of Long Island via a train called the Cape Horn.  It left Greenport and traveled to the Hamptons and beyond via Manorville Station and a right-of-way that joined the LIRR’s southern branch at Eastport Station.  Additional westbound connections could be made at Eastport.  There were typically two roundtrip Cape Horns daily with one roundtrip on Sundays.[27]

Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)
Little Bay, Orient Point State Park (August 24, 2012)

Not only were there more trains to and from Greenport, luxury service at a greater price was available in parlor cars.  Attracting the more affluent riders, parlors offered deluxe amenities in a relaxing atmosphere.  As early as 1883, parlor car trains ran express to Greenport.  Later, these consists adopted names. The first was The Cyclone in 1885, stopping only at Jamaica and Riverhead on its way to Greenport.  One section of the train also ran to Sag Harbor after it split from the consist at Manorville Station. The Cannonball Express to Greenport was inaugurated in 1891 with one section also running to Sag Harbor.  It typically ran from June 15 to September 15, serving some of the East End’s most prominent vacationers heading for the hotels and boarding houses on the North Fork.  Greenport boarding houses included the Ye Clarke House and the Peconic House.  As aforementioned, ferry service was available to Shelter Island adjacent to the LIRR station. After the dawn of automobile traffic, new ferry requirements were necessary.  As of 1923, boats were sixty-four feet long with more room for vehicles.[28]

On the summer 1898 schedule, The Cannonball Express left Long Island City at 4:03 p.m. as train number 25, stopped at Jamaica, Riverhead, Jamesport, Mattituck, Cutchogue, Peconic and Southold, and arrived in Greenport at 6:18 p.m.  Parlor car service was also available on a Friday-only express train leaving Long Island City at 3:03 p.m. (number 195) and on a daily mid-morning train (number 9).  Westbound parlor service from Greenport was available daily on a mid-morning train (number 24), a late afternoon train (number 10), and a Friday-only evening train (number 196).[29]

Ferry service from Manhattan was available at Long Island City Station.  Riders also connected with Greenport service at Jamaica Station via a Brooklyn train.  Beginning in 1910, Greenport trains ran to and from Pennsylvania (Penn) Station in Manhattan negating the need to take a ferry.  To run consists into and out of the city, electric locomotives were used.  At first the change of locomotive from steam to electric took place prior to tunnel entry.  However, beginning in the fall of 1927, the switch took place at Jamaica Station.[30]

Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building and former low-level platform (right), view northeast (July 4, 2015)
Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building and former low-level platform (right), view northeast (July 4, 2015)

With an increase in both passenger and freight traffic, the LIRR rebuilt Greenport Station.  The formal announcement was made in March 1892.  The plan included a new freight house as well as a new passenger depot building east of the existing structure, which would be removed for installation of additional tracks, making it possible for passengers to board the Shelter Island ferry without any exposure to the elements.  A new slip was to be built and water was also dredged at the bulkhead in front of the depot to permit large steamboats.  A new four-bay round house and turntable would also be added.  The new one-story twenty-by-one-hundred foot brick freight house was completed in early May 1892 a short distance west of Fourth Street just north of two new team tracks. The roundhouse and turntable were constructed south of the two main tracks along a new roundhouse track.[31]

Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building, view southwest, East End Seaport Museum (July 4, 2015)
Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building, view southwest, East End Seaport Museum (July 4, 2015)

The new twenty-by-seventy-five foot depot building was made of brick and featured a waiting room and baggage area, office space, and a distinctive ticket office bay window which was removed by the 1920s.  It was built at the intersection of Third Street and the railroad right-of-way, north of a new main track that was installed just north of the former main track.  The station platform ran west from the depot building, parallel to and just south of the two new team tracks built on the site of the former depot building which was purchased by George M. Baker in the summer of 1892 and moved to the corner of South and Second Streets.[32] 

Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building, view west, East End Seaport Museum (July 4, 2015)
Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building, view west, East End Seaport Museum (July 4, 2015)

Rail Service to Greenport in the Post-World War II Years

Beginning in the 1920s, travelers began to prefer the comfort and convenience of their own vehicle.  In fact, there were only eight commuters who traveled to and from Greenport and western terminals in the summer of 1930.  In the winter there was only one.[33]  Although ridership was very low, service was at a peak.  In the summer of 1937, there were three westbound trains from Greenport daily and as many as four eastbound.[34]

Parlor service and named-trains were also prominent in the 1930s.  The best-known was The Cannonball Express which ran daily Monday through Saturday all year as train number 20-286.  It departed New York at 3:57 p.m. and split at Manorville with train number 286 going to Greenport, arriving in two hours and twenty-one minutes later at 6:18 p.m.  On Fridays the train ran solo as number 212, sometimes called The Greenport Express, making the trip in less time.  It departed at 4:07 p.m. and arrived two hours and seventeen minutes later at 6:24 p.m.  No doubt promoting what the LIRR called “An Emerald in a Sea of Turquoise,” The Shelter Island Express (number 210) ran on Fridays only, leaving New York at 3:00 p.m. and arriving in a little over two hours at 5:05 p.m.  Parlor car service was also available on The Peconic Bay Express (train number 208) leaving New York on Saturday afternoons at 1:10 p.m. and The Banker, which left Greenport on Monday mornings at 7:30 a.m. and arrived in New York at 9:46 a.m.  After Labor Day in 1942 there was no longer parlor service available in luxurious Pullman cars.[35]

North Fork Mile Marker 30, Ferry Dock, Orient Point (May 16, 2015)
North Fork Mile Marker 30, Ferry Dock, Orient Point (May 16, 2015)

While ridership grew during World War II because of a fuel and rubber tire shortage, it began to fall in the postwar years as riders returned to their vehicles.  The calamity was also made worse by a coal shortage that limited steam service to eastern non-electrified territory including the Main Line to Greenport.  By 1949 its corporate parent, the Pennsylvania Railroad, refused to cover the LIRR’s debts forcing bankruptcy.[36]

Poquatuck Park, Orient (October 12, 2014)
Poquatuck Park, Orient (October 12, 2014)

In August of 1954, New York State passed legislation that took the LIRR out of bankruptcy and designated it as a redevelopment company.  The amount of $60 million was provided to improve service over a twelve-year period.  Since improvement focused on the western electrified territory, service to Greenport was considered secondary and as a result, it was reduced to bare minimum.[37]  Additionally, there was no longer direct service to New York.  As a cost-cutting measure beginning in the summer of 1951, all trains operating into and out of Penn Station by way of electric locomotives were altered to originate and terminate in Jamaica or Long Island City.  Passengers were forced to switch to an electric consist and the moniker “change at Jamaica” became the norm.[38]

Webb House, Orient (October 12, 2014)
Webb House, Orient (October 12, 2014)

On the new limited schedule, eastbound train number 204 that formerly left New York 8:39 a.m. now left Jamaica at 9:08 a.m.  With an 8:39 a.m. New York connection, it arrived in Greenport at 12:09 p.m., four and a half hours later.  The train also handled eastbound mail service.  Its westbound counterpart was number 211 which formerly left Greenport at 3:18 p.m. and arrived in New York at 6:52 p.m.  It now left Greenport at 3:00 p.m. and terminated in Jamaica at 5:44 p.m., with a New York connection arrival time of 6:08 p.m., a little over three hours later.  For the few who may have commuted from the East End, westbound number 205 left Greenport at 5:56 a.m. and, after a change of trains at Jamaica, customers arrived in New York two hours and forty-eight minutes later at 9:10 a.m.  Eastbound afternoon number 214 left Jamaica at 5:04 p.m., with a connection that departed New York at 4:41 p.m., and arrived in Greenport at 7:37 p.m.  Weekend service was restricted to two roundtrips to and from Greenport.[39]

LIRR Greenport Station platform and EMD MP15-AC number 157, view west: Class E-15mc, built March-April 1977 (Circa Fall 1995)
LIRR Greenport Station platform and EMD MP15-AC number 157, view west: Class E-15mc, built March-April 1977 (Circa Fall 1995)

In an attempt to improve the schedule, the LIRR moved some freight to overnight hours which allowed for better running times.  Taking almost two years to fully institute, the eastbound mail train (number 204) now arrived in Greenport at 11:42 a.m., cutting almost a half-hour of the trip.  Its westbound counterpart (number 211) left sixteen minutes later and maintained its scheduled arrival time.  The eastbound rush-hour train (number 214) had eight minutes shaved off its run and the westbound morning train (number 205) had fifteen minutes cut.[40]

Another change during redevelopment was centralized freight service.  Granted permission by the State Public Service Commission in December 1958, the LIRR discontinued station agents at fifteen stations as well as direct handling of less-than-carload freight at several others.  In effect, freight service on the North Fork was streamlined and the Greenport station agent now handled freight at nearby Southold Station.[41]

Rebirth of Parlor Car Service

Although East End express service continued during the war years, parlor car service did not resume until 1946.  For the next ten years, business was seldom sufficient to require more than one car each weekend for both the North and South Forks.  Long Island’s highways handled the bulk of eastbound weekend traffic.  However, as highway traffic increased, the railroad saw renewed interest in parlor service.  While most railroads of the 1950s had more parlor cars than they needed, the LIRR experienced a demand greater than at the time since the end of the 1920s.  In fact, in 1959 there were 16,617 riders in a fleet of twenty cars yielding $111,000 in first-class fares, $36,800 more than the previous year.  Two of the cars were purchased in 1958 in an anticipation of greater business while the remainder of the fleet came from the LIRR’s corporate parent, the Pennsylvania Railroad.  With the advent of diesel power for LIRR locomotives, East End consists were no longer hauled by steam engines.[42]

In 1961 the railroad acquired twenty-six new parlor cars.  The following year parlor car service was nicknamed the Route of the Weekend Chief.  As in the Gilded Age, cars were given names such as Montauk, Peconic, Cutchogue, and Mattituck, to reflect the indigenous history of Long Island.[43]

LIRR Eastern Long Island Timetable Effective July 1, 1981: LIRR Parlor Car Service advertisement for the summer of 1981
LIRR Eastern Long Island Timetable Effective July 1, 1981: LIRR Parlor Car Service advertisement for the summer of 1981

New parlor cars were on the Friday eastbound Shelter Island Express (train number 212).  The name was used previously for the mid-afternoon express train number 210.  However, now that The Cannonball Express was fixed to the Montauk getaway train, The Shelter Island Express was the North Fork getaway namesake.  While not as impressive as former express trains in terms of speed, it provided a scheduled two hour and forty-five minute ride from New York to Greenport.  On the 1964 timetable, the New York connection departed at 4:23 p.m.  Passengers changed at Jamaica for the diesel-hauled consist with parlor service.  After stops in Riverhead, Mattituck, and Southold, the train arrived in Greenport at 7:13 p.m.[44]  The following year the running time was improved and there were as many as three parlors.  The New York connection now departed eleven minutes later while keeping with the same Jamaica and Greenport arrival times.  In 1966, Cutchogue was added to the North Fork station stops and by 1968, the train stopped in Jamesport.[45]

In the advent of the Weekend Chief, express trains to and from Greenport were added to the Friday evening schedule.  Beginning in the 1962 season, eastbound train number 218, complete with parlor car, arrived in Greenport after 10:00 p.m. while numbers 217 and 219 ran in the late evening to Jamaica.  All three were discontinued after the 1965 season.  For several years on the Sunday return trip west, early evening train number 4213 had one parlor and the late evening number 4217 had two.[46]

The popularity of The Shelter Island Express led to extended service in the 1975-1976 off-season.  By this time, train number 212 departed Jamaica at 4:58 p.m.  With a New York connection leaving at 4:23 p.m., total travel time from Manhattan increased to two hours and forty-eight minutes, arriving in Greenport at 7:11 p.m.  However, extension into the off-season was short-lived.  Fall service did not resume in 1976.[47]

For the 1970 season, the LIRR reinstated the westbound Monday morning express train, complete with an all-parlor consist.  For the first time in over thirty years, the westbound Shelter Island Express carried passengers back to New York after a summer weekend.  Train number 205 left Greenport at 7:00 a.m., stopped at Southold, Cutchogue, Mattituck, and Riverhead, and then ran express to Jamaica and Long Island City’s Hunterspoint Avenue Station, terminating at 9:30 a.m.  Regular amenities available were continental breakfast and the morning newspaper.  For first-day passengers on June 1, free breakfast and newspapers were provided.  The train was renumbered 201 for the 1972 season and had both parlor and coach cars.  While departure time was twenty minutes earlier by 1975, it maintained a running time under three hours.  The final summer of parlor service was 1981.  At the beginning of the season, train number 201 left Greenport at 6:47 a.m. and arrived at Hunterspoint Avenue at 9:20 a.m.  However, as of July 1, it was changed to a daily weekday train with a parlor car Mondays only.  Departure time was set back to 6:01 a.m. with a Hunterspoint Avenue arrival time three hours later at 9:01 a.m.  Final westbound parlor service was most likely on September 8, 1981.[48]

Sadly, eastbound parlor car service to Greenport was also discontinued in the 1980s.  Effective in the 1977 summer season, train 212 was renumbered train 206.  However, on July 1, 1981, number 206 became a Friday-only late evening summer train leaving Jamaica at 8:15 p.m. and arriving in Greenport at 11:00 p.m.  Train number 220 now featured the parlor car, leaving Hunterspoint Avenue at 4:08 p.m. and arriving in Greenport at 7:13 p.m.  For 1982, the train was renumbered train 202.  Finally, in 1983, it was designated as number 216 and ran daily with parlor service only on Fridays.  The final season of parlor cars to Greenport was 1986.  By this time, the train’s scheduled total run with a New York connection was three hours and two minutes, a far cry from the 1930s when it was a little over two hours.  The last day was most likely Friday, October 10, 1986.[49]

LIRR Road ‘n’ Rail Bus Service to Greenport

One phase of the redevelopment plan prior to state takeover of the railroad was replacement of Main Line rail service east of Ronkonkoma with buses.  It was hoped to triple ridership in rapidly-growing areas of mid-Suffolk County.  Termed the Road ‘n’ Rail Route, the substitute bus-for-rail service ran via Main Road (NY-25) from Greenport to Huntington where it connected with train service to or from New York.  When it first began, three roundtrip bus routes operated weekdays between Huntington and Riverhead, and three others between Huntington and Greenport.[50]

Former LIRR Greenport Station sign, Railroad Museum of Long Island exhibit, Greenport (October 11, 2014)
Former LIRR Greenport Station sign, Railroad Museum of Long Island exhibit, Greenport (October 11, 2014)

After the village granted the railroad permission to operate buses within Greenport, service began on Monday, February 19, 1962.  The only train that continued between Ronkonkoma and Greenport was the daily train carrying mail and passengers in each direction (train numbers 204 & 211).  The morning and evening rush-hour trains (numbers 205 & 214) were discontinued.  Last day of service was Friday, March 2 as trains were replaced with three roundtrip bus routes to Greenport.  On weekends, remaining rail service was one roundtrip each day.  The other roundtrip was discontinued effective Saturday, March 3 and Sunday, March 4, and replaced with two roundtrip bus routes to Greenport.[51]

Greenport‘s LIRR bus stop was located at the railroad station.  For the few, if any, that commuted to New York, the new rush-hour bus-and-train combination didn’t save time but rather saved the railroad money.  It also brought LIRR service to areas such as Coram and Happaugue.  The morning rush-hour bus left Greenport at 6:15 a.m., connected with a train in Huntington at 8:00 a.m. and, after a train change at Jamaica, passengers arrived in New York at 9:16 a.m.  For the return east, riders caught a 5:07 p.m. train at Penn Station and arrived in Greenport at 8:10 p.m.  Total commute time was over three hours.[52]

Within two-and-a-half months another weekday roundtrip was extended to Greenport making four in total.  The following summer the number was five and by 1963 there were six weekday roundtrips and four on the weekend.  However, effective May 21, 1973 the Road ‘n’ Rail Route connected with train service at Babylon rather than Huntington.  Since it now avoided stops along NY-25 west of Riverhead, some commuting time was saved.  Both the westbound and eastbound rush-hour bus-and-train combinations now ran in slightly under three hours.[53]

The Road ‘n’ Rail Route to Greenport peaked in the mid-1970s.  In the summer of 1976 there were eleven weekday eastbound busses and twelve westbound, and four roundtrips on weekends.  However, gradually the number diminished as rail service returned.  Beginning September 8, 1981, bus service reduced to four weekday roundtrips from Babylon to Greenport, starting at 7:43 a.m. and ending at 7:09 p.m.  Weekend bus service was discontinued.  The weekday number was cut to two roundtrips effective October 16, 1982.  Bus-train number 104 left Babylon at 10:33 p.m. and returned as number 151 at 2:20 p.m.  Number 126 left Babylon at 3:01 p.m. and returned as number 173 at 6:50 p.m.  By 1984 both were discontinued.  Local bus service was now operated by Suffolk County as part of a 1980 $3.5 million plan to provide better bus service.  The railroad advertised the new route in passenger timetables.[54]

LIRR Eastern Long Island Timetable Effective November 14, 1981: LIRR announces the alternate Suffolk County bus service on the North Fork
LIRR Eastern Long Island Timetable Effective November 14, 1981: LIRR announces the alternate Suffolk County bus service on the North Fork

Improved Daily Rail Service

While express and parlor service endured throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the first sign of a return to regular train service was in 1976.  As of Saturday October 23 another roundtrip shuttle to and from Ronkonkoma and Greenport was added.  It left Greenport at 1:16 p.m. and departed Ronkonkoma at 4:06 p.m.  Although it was discontinued by 1980 it returned as of July 1, 1981.  The date also proved to be a turning point as rush-hour trains to and from New York were restored.[55]

A study of passenger travel patterns showed that rail service was warranted.  For the first time since 1962 Greenporters could commute by train to western terminals.  Train number 201, formerly the Monday-only Shelter Island Express, now ran daily with a 6:01 a.m. departure and a 9:00 a.m. arrival at Hunterspoint Avenue Station.  For the return ride home, train number 204 left Hunterspoint Avenue at 5:51 p.m. and arrived in Greenport at 8:52 p.m.  An evening westbound train to Jamaica leaving at 9:23 p.m. (number 203) was also added to the schedule as well as an eastbound overnight train from Jamaica at 11:59 p.m. (number 200) which provided the equipment for the westbound rush-hour train.  On summer Fridays, number 202 from Hunterspoint Avenue arrived in Greenport at 7:13 p.m. and number 206 from Jamaica arrived at 11:00 p.m.[56]

LIRR Eastern Long Island Timetable Effective July 1, 1981: LIRR weekday service to Greenport at its greatest extent, with both trains and buses, lasted two months
LIRR Eastern Long Island Timetable Effective July 1, 1981: LIRR weekday service to Greenport at its greatest extent, with both trains and buses, lasted two months

The former midday roundtrip train to and from Greenport and Ronkonkoma was discontinued as of July 1, 1981.  Since both mail and freight service came to an end by the early 1970s, it no longer hauled mail but was rather a one-car consist.  In addition, all Greenport railroad buildings were torn down except for the freight house and depot building which was closed September 4, 1967 after Labor Day service.  A short high-level platform north of the two main tracks was removed in 1939. It did reopen Sundays-only during the 1968 summer season.  The turntable was out of service effective June 26, 1972.  However, in 1986 the village and a group called Project 39 began a clean-up and rehabilitation program of the turntable.[57]

Ronkonkoma Electrification

From 1981 to 1987 service to Greenport was periodically revised.  Effective October 16, 1982, the westbound commuter train left at 5:15 p.m. and was renumbered 209.  By the fall of 1983, the entire Greenport regular schedule was renumbered and some departure and arrival times altered.  The roundtrip rush-hour train from Greenport and Hunterspoint Avenue now left Greenport at 5:27 a.m. as number 213 and returned at 8:51 p.m. as number 220.  In addition, the former Friday-only train now ran all-year as number 216, departing Hunterspoint Avenue at 4:06 p.m., while it’s late evening counterpart remained a Friday-only summer train, arriving in Greenport after 11:00 p.m. as number 222.  Another change was overnight train number 200 was now number 210.  Lastly, there were now two evening westbound trains: number 219 departing at 7:25 p.m. and number 221 departing at 9:37 p.m.  However, as of October 14, 1985, overnight number 210 no longer carried passengers and by 1986 evening westbound train number 219 was discontinued and number 221 was renumbered 223.  What remained on Greenport timetables when the Main Line was electrified to Ronkonkoma was the daily roundtrip rush-hour train (numbers 213 & 220), the daily late afternoon eastbound train (number 216), and the late evening westbound train (number 223).  On weekends there were two roundtrips to Greenport from Jamaica.  One of these terminated at Hicksville on its westbound run.[58]  

 After years of planning and discussion, the Main Line to Ronkonkoma was electrified and went into full service on Monday, January 18, 1988.  East of Ronkonkoma, service was completely revised.  No longer was service directly to Jamaica or Hunterspoint Avenue.  Seven weekday diesel scoot trains now operated between Ronkonkoma and Riverhead or Greenport.  Westbound rush-hour service departed Greenport at 5:56 a.m. (train number 201) and connected with the Penn Station-bound Ronkonkoma Express (number 2019) that ran express to New York arriving at 8:22 a.m.  For the few that commuted from Greenport, the new setup improved running time from over three hours to not quite two and a half hours.  Eastbound service was also improved.  While there were no longer two options, the evening ride home was now two hours and thirty-five minutes.  The Hicksville Ronkonkoma Express left New York at 5:41 p.m. (number 2070), made one station stop in Hicksville, and arrived in Ronkonkoma at 6:46 p.m.  At Ronkonkoma, passengers connected with diesel train number 254 and arrived in Greenport at 8:16 p.m.  Besides rush-hour service the late evening westbound train remained from the old schedule as number 255 bound for Ronkonkoma at 9:37 p.m.[59]

During the midday hours, a new roundtrip was added.  Similar to the former mail train, it departed Ronkonkoma at 9:36 a.m. as number 202 and arrived in Greenport at 11:02 a.m.  The return trip left Greenport at 11:37 a.m. as number 203.  Two roundtrips from and to Ronkonkoma were scheduled on weekends.  The first was 4200 & 4201 and the second was 4202 & 4203.[60]

Station and Service Improvements

 Years after they were abandoned by the LIRR, Greenport Station’s depot building and freight house were reconditioned for other purposes.  In 1992, with a matching grant from the state, the village of Greenport launched a major restoration of the depot building which later housed the East End Seaport and Marine Foundation’s Maritime Museum.  While both the state and village each paid $140,000, the museum agreed to reimburse the village within ten years.  It opened in August 1993.  Adjacent to it, the Railroad Museum of Long Island opened in the former freight house in 1991.[61]

Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building, view northwest, East End Seaport Museum (July 4, 2015)
Former LIRR Greenport Station depot building, view northwest, East End Seaport Museum (July 4, 2015)

The remainder of the station was renovated in junction with the Greenport Architectural Review Board.  To accommodate a new diesel fleet with coaches that did not have stairs to disembark to the existing low-level platform, the station received a four-foot high-level platform.  Work began in the winter of 1996 to 1997 but proceeded slowly.  By November of 1997 the concrete platform and roof foundation was in place just west of the former depot building on the east end of the low-level platform north of the main track.  However, it was not in service.  In the interim, the west end of the former low-level platform was utilized.  Upon completion in late-spring 1998, the one and a half car length platform featured a nine-post gable canopy to provide shelter.  Between two sets of posts are enamel and Plexiglas partitions one of which features an information board below a station sign that reads “Greenport, Shelter Island Ferries.”[62]

LIRR Greenport Station, high-level platform and ramp, view northwest (July 4, 2015)
LIRR Greenport Station, high-level platform and ramp, view northwest (July 4, 2015)

The second phase of station redevelopment was the addition of sixty parking spaces to help alleviate the business district’s parking problem.  Also funded by the LIRR, the project improved the area just west of the station north of the tracks.  In addition to new spaces, the area was landscaped.  Work was completed in the fall of 1998.[63]

LIRR Greenport Station, high-level platform, view southwest (July 4, 2015)
LIRR Greenport Station, high-level platform, view southwest (July 4, 2015)

The new diesel locomotives and coaches replaced grime-covered coaches that dated back to 1955.  The project began in earnest in 1994 and included input of local residents and passengers.  Commuter suggestions included such things as wider seats, cellular phones, and durability.  According to railroad officials, seats in new coaches were more comfortable than in the old coaches.  The silicone-cushioned seats were wider and cantilevered for more leg room that made them easier to clean.  In total, the railroad received 134 bi-level coaches and forty-six locomotives at a cost of $412 million.  The metallic silver cars not only resembled their electric counterparts but also had the ability to accelerate and decelerate just as fast.  Compared to the 118 passengers on the old cars, the new bi-level cars carried between 137 to 144 passengers depending on accessory equipment in different cars.  They were first tested on the Main Line to Greenport on August 6, 1998 and began to serve Greenport in late-December 1998.[64]

LIRR Greenport Station and train number 9200 (Greenport Tall Ships extra train), view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)
LIRR Greenport Station and train number 9200 (Greenport Tall Ships extra train), view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)

Although half the new locomotives can run on electric and diesel power, Greenport trains still originate and terminate at Ronkonkoma.  Dual-mode service to New York was never instituted.  Nevertheless, service to Greenport has changed since Ronkonkoma electrification.  Within a year, the Hicksville Ronkonkoma Express was changed to the Hicksville Central Islip Express and later renumbered 256 while maintaining an impressive run time.  The same cannot be said for its westbound counterpart.  Train number 201 was rescheduled within a year to depart at 5:37 a.m. and connect with an electric train that made several station stops.  Today, train number 201 leaves at 5:30 a.m. and its connection arrives in New York at 8:20 a.m. almost three hours later.[65]

LIRR Greenport Station and train number 6200, view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)
LIRR Greenport Station and train number 6200, view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)

To satisfy the need for the weekend getaway, the LIRR added seasonal service.  On summer Friday afternoons, train number 254 leaves Ronkonkoma at 5:21 p.m. and arrives in Greenport at 6:45 a.m.  While parlor service was eliminated back in the 1980s, the LIRR added another service to number 254 in 2011.  Dubbed the North Fork Wine Train, local wine and other beverages can be purchased on board the train at a bar cart manned by a railroad employee in the first car.  Developed by the MTA, the Long Island Wine Council, and the North Fork Promotion Council, it began as a pilot project to promote Long Island’s Wine Country and familiarize North Fork visitors with the area.[66]

North Fork Wine Train beverage cart menu (May 27, 2016)
North Fork Wine Train beverage cart menu (May 27, 2016)
LIRR Greenport Station and train number 6200, view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)
LIRR Greenport Station and train number 6200, view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)

Modern-Day Greenport

Throughout its history, Greenport’s economy was dominated by commercial fishing, whaling, farming, and shipbuilding.  One of the biggest businesses was Mitchell’s Restaurant and Marina which served as a major tourist attraction.  However, a fire in 1979 destroyed it signaling a turning point for the village and its economic stability.  For years, the Mitchell property was marked by deteriorating buildings and rotting bulkheads.  However, in the 1990s, the village tried to reestablish itself as a center of nautical tourism and purchased the Mitchell property.  To increase tourism and rejuvenate its maritime industry, it began efforts to build a waterfront park at the former site that would feature a band shell, a carousel, and a harbor walk to connect the park and the nautical museum.[67]

Mitchell Park and Marina, Greenport (July 4, 2015)
Mitchell Park and Marina, Greenport (July 4, 2015)

The renaissance began in 1994 when the village dismantled its police force and passed law enforcement responsibility to the town of Southold.  The action freed up nearly $1 million.  Secondly, the village sold its public water system to the Suffolk County Water Authority for $3.5 million, another cash source for the project.  Next, it acquired the 2.3-acre Front Street property for $1.2 million plus $175,000 in back taxes.  Bank loans and Greenport’s $225,000 reserve were also used to finance the project as well as over $700,000 in state grants.  Ground-breaking was January 8, 1999.[68]

Greenport Tall Ships 2015 (July 4, 2015)
Greenport Tall Ships 2015 (July 4, 2015)

Besides the marina components, work also included a pavilion for a carousel that the village obtained in the early 1990s from Northrop Grumman Corp., a terraced amphitheater, a skating rink, and a boardwalk that connected the two.  The carousel was one of the first structures in service, opening in July of 1995.  Since completed, Mitchell Park has attracted more than 100,000 people each year.  It became the centerpiece of a downtown that now sports tiny restaurants, art galleries, high-end clothing, gift and cheese shops, and antique stores.  Old businesses have also enjoyed the rebirth.  Owners of Claudio’s, Greenport’s largest restaurant and marina established in 1870, added that revitalization of the waterfront was long overdue.[69]

Claudio's Restaurant, Greenport (July 4, 2015)
Claudio’s Restaurant, Greenport (July 4, 2015)

The marina is a reminder of Greenport’s history as a seaport town.  In recent years, two events sponsored by the Tall Ships group have taken place in the harbor.  The first was in 2012 as part of a bicentennial race commemorating the War of 1812.  On July Fourth weekend in 2015, sailing ships from France, Portugal, NovaScotia, and New Jersey made their way to Greenport harbor for a nautical festival.  Live bands performed on two stages and local shops held sidewalk sales.  One of the vessels was the Sagres.  Built in the 1930s by the German navy, the ship was captured by the Allies in World War II, turned over to the Brazilian Navy in 1948, and currently sails for Portugal.[70]

Greenport Tall Ships 2015 (July 4, 2015)
Greenport Tall Ships 2015 (July 4, 2015)
Sagres, Greenport Tall Ships 2015 (July 4, 2015)
Sagres, Greenport Tall Ships 2015 (July 4, 2015)

With limited local parking available, officials urged visitors to take the LIRR to Greenport on both occasions.  For the 2015 weekend, three extra trains were added for festivalgoers.[71]

LIRR Greenport Station and EMD DE30AC number 419 of train number 9200 (Greenport Tall Ships extra train), view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)
LIRR Greenport Station and EMD DE30AC number 419 of train number 9200 (Greenport Tall Ships extra train), view west (Greenport Tall Ships: July 4, 2015)

In 2010, Greenport’s population was 2,048.  With LIRR service, the nearby Orient Point ferry to New England, the Hampton Jitney bus stop, and ferry link to Shelter Island and the Hamptons, it is a seaport transit hub and tourist location.  In fact, Greenport’s LIRR station and Shelter Island ferry dock act as a mini-transportation hub.  In recent years, the motto of this small North Fork village can be held true: “Greenport is the real thing.”[72]

 

Next page: Water Mill: Life in the Country

 
___________________________________________________________

[1] Stan Fischler, Long Island Rail Road (Voyageur Press: New York, 2007), 19.

[2] Ibid.,13-14.

[3] Greenport Village, Anniversary Journalist: Greenport Village 150th Anniversary, 1838-1988 (Greenport, NY: Greenport Village, 1988.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Richard M. Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County with a Historical Outline of Long Island (Port Washington, NY: Ira J. Friedman Inc., 1962), 360; Henry Isham Hazelton, The Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, Counties of Nassau and Suffolk, Long Island, New York, 1609-1924 (New York: Lewis Historical, 1925), 713-714.

[7] Greenport Village, Anniversary Journalist: Greenport Village 150th Anniversary, 1838-1988; Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 378-380; Bill Bleyer, “A Village’s Sea Changes,” in Home Town Long Island: the History of Every Community on Long Island in Stories and Photographs (Melville, NY: Newsday, 1999).

[8] Greenport Village, Anniversary Journalist: Greenport Village 150th Anniversary, 1838-1988; Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 378-380; Bleyer, “A Village’s Sea Changes.”

[9] Greenport Village, Anniversary Journalist: Greenport Village 150th Anniversary, 1838-1988; Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 378-380; Bleyer, “A Village’s Sea Changes.”

[10] Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 380; Vincent F. Seyfried, The Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, vol. 3, Age of Expansion (Garden City, NY: Seyfried, 1984), 193-194; Box 5, Book 16, Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries.

[11] “Local Intelligence,” Long Island Traveler (Huntington), October 16, 1879, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.

[12] Hazelton, Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, Counties of Nassau and Suffolk, 714.

[13] Ibid., 718-719; Tom Morris, “Town of Shelter Island: An Unspoiled Island Sheltered by Islands,” in Home Town Long Island: the History of Every Community on Long Island in Stories and Photographs (Melville, NY: Newsday, 1999), 128.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Morris, “Town of Shelter Island.”

[16] Ibid.

[17] Staff of Long Island, Home Town Long Island: the History of Every Community on Long Island in Stories and Photographs (Melville, NY: Newsday, 1999), 128.

[18] Morris, “Town of Shelter Island”; Greenport Village, Anniversary Journalist: Greenport Village 150th Anniversary, 1838-1988.

[19] Staff of Long Island, Home Town Long Island, 150; Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County with a Historical Outline of Long Island, 386.

[20] Staff of Long Island, Home Town Long Island, 150; Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 385; Lisa Doll Bruno, “Buying in East Marion,” Newsday (Combined editions), August 24, 2012, http://www.proquest.com.

[21] “Our Campus,” Oysterponds Historical Society, accessed on February 13, 2016, http://www.oysterpondshistoricalsociety.org/campus.html.

[22] Ibid., 386-388; Staff of Long Island, Home Town Long Island, 150; Erik Nelson, “Living In: Water, Water and Peace, Everywhere,” Newsday (Combined editions), April 19, 1998, http://www.proquest.com; Ann Smukler, “Buying in Orient,” Newsday (Combined editions), February 4, 2011, http://www.proquest.com.

[23] Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 386-388; “Orient Point (The Coffee Pot) Lighthouse,” Long Island Lighthouses, accessed January 22, 2016, http://www.longislandlighthouses.com/orientpt.htm; “The Old Coffee Pot,” Suffolk Times, May 10, 1973.

[24] Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 386-388; Staff of Long Island, Home Town Long Island, 150; Tamar Asedo Sherman, “Community of Interest / Greenport,” Newsday (Combined editions), August 3, 2001, http://www.proquest.com.

[25] Bayles, Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk County, 388-389; Staff of Long Island, Home Town Long Island, 127.

[26] Bleyer, “A Village’s Sea Changes.”

[27] Ibid.; “L.I.R.R. Time Table,” Long Island Traveler (Huntington), June 18, 1897, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.

[28] Hazelton, Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, Counties of Nassau and Suffolk, 715-716; Mike Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” Keystone 28, no. 3 (Autumn 1995): 11-12.

[29] Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 13, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective June 23, 1898, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1898).

[30] Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” 15.

[31] “Long Island Rail Road: Alphabetical Station Listing and History”; Vincent F. Seyfried, The Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, vol. 6, The Golden Age 1881-1900 (Garden City, NY: Seyfried, 1984), 264; Box 5, Book 16, Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection; “Greenport,” Riverhead News, March 12, 1892.

[32] “Greenport,” Riverhead News, May 14, 1892; “Greenport,” Riverhead News, August 6, 1892.

[33] Long Island Railroad, “Long Island Commuters,” Long Island Railroad Information Bulletin 8, no.1 (January – February 1931): 8.

[34] Long Island Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, New York Zone, Long Island Railroad, Time Table No. 8, In Effect 2.00 a.m. Sunday, September 19, 1937, For the Government of Employes Only, Eastern Standard Time (New York: Long Island Railroad, 1937), Main Line.

[35] Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 13, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, In Effect 2:00 a.m. June 25, 1939 Daylight Saving Time, Condensed Time Table to the Hampton and Montauk, and Riverhead and Stations to Greenport, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1939); Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” 20-24.

[36] Stan Fischler, Long Island Rail Road, Voyageur Press: New York, 2007, 94-95.

[37] Ibid., 116.

[38] “Walk a Little Bit, Sit Less: LIRR to Riders,” Newsday (1940-1986), June 12, 1951, http://www.proquest.com.

[39] Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 14, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective January 27, 1947, Long Island Rail Road Time Table, Main Line, Bethpage, Ronkonkoma, Riverhead, Greenport and Intermediate Stations, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1947); Long Island Rail Road, Schedule in Effect October 3, 1955, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1955), Main Line; Long Island Rail Road, Schedule in Effect September 10, 1956, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1956), Main Line.

[40] “L.I. Rail Road to Speed Runs to Eastern Suffolk,” The Watchman, December 13, 1956; Long Island Rail Road, Schedule in Effect September 2, 1958, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1958), Main Line.

[41] “LIRR Gets OK to Cut Agents at 15 Stations,” Patchogue Advance, December 18, 1958, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.

[42] Robert E. Bedingfield, “Luxury Pays its Way on L.I.R.R.,” New York Times (1923-Current file), June 10, 1960, http://www.proquest.com; Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” 35.

[43] Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” 35; “Luxury Pays its Way on L.I.R.R.”; Speaking of Business,” Patchogue Advance, May 11, 1961, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; “LIRR Goes Deluxe to Serve East-End Resort Areas,” Long Islander (Huntington), May 31, 1962, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.

[44] Long Island Rail Road, Long Island Rail Road Timetable, Schedule in Effect September 14, 1964 (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1964), Main Line.

[45] Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” 37; Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 18, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Long Island Rail Road Employee Timetables, Effective September 13, 1965, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1965), Main Line; Long Island Rail Road, Long Island Rail Road Timetable No. 1, in effect 12:01 AM, Sunday, May 22, 1966 (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1966), Main Line; MTA The Long Island Rail Road Company, Long Island Rail Road Timetable No. 4, effective 12:01 AM, Monday, November 25, 1968 (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1968), Main Line.

[46] “L.I.R.R Expands its Road ‘n’ Rail Route Service,” The Watchman (Mattituck), June 7, 1962, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; Long Island Rail Road, Long Island Rail Road Timetable No. 1, in effect 12:01 AM, Sunday, May 22, 1966, Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” 35-37.

[47] “LIRR Extends the Eastend Service,” The Watchman (Mattituck), October 25, 1975, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective September 20, 1976, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1976); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 19, 1975, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1975).

[48] “LIRR will again Operate Express Trains to North Fork,” The Watchman (Mattituck), May 28, 1970, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 14, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Long Island Rail Road Timetables Effective October 30, 1972, by Long Island Rail Road  (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1972), Main Line; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 19, 1975, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 18, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1981); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 1, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1981); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective September 8, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1981).

[49] MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 23, 1977, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1977); Boland, “The Route of the Weekend Chief,” 56; MTA The Long Island Rail Road Company, Long Island Rail Road Timetable No. 4, effective 12:01 AM, Monday, November 25, 1968, Main Line; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 18, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 1, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 12, 1982, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1982); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective October 16, 1982, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1982); Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 13, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, In Effect 2:00 a.m. June 25, 1939 Daylight Saving Time, Condensed Time Table to the Hampton and Montauk, and Riverhead and Stations to Greenport.

[50] “Huntington-Southold Bus Service of LIRR Approved by P.S. Commission,” The Watchman, January 18, 1962; “Long Island Rail Road Inaugurates Bus Service from Greenport to Huntington next Monday,” The Watchman, February 15, 1962.

[51] “Huntington-Southold Bus Service of LIRR Approved by P.S. Commission”; “Long Island Rail Road Inaugurates Bus Service from Greenport to Huntington next Monday”; Long Island Rail Road, Schedule in Effect September 11, 1961, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1961), Main Line; Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 14, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective February 19, 1962, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1962).

[52] Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 14, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective February 19, 1962, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1962).

[53] “LIRR Road ‘n’ Rail Route Service Increased,” The Watchman (Mattituck), May 3, 1962, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; “L.I.R.R Expands its Road ‘n’ Rail Route Service,” The Watchman (Mattituck), June 7, 1962, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 14, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective May 19, 1963, Main Line Road ‘n’ Rail Timetable, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1963); Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 14, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Long Island Rail Road Timetables Effective October 30, 1972; The Long Island Rail Road, Effective October 7, 1974, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1974); “LIRR Announces Revision in Schedule,” Long Island Traveler-Mattituck Watchman (Southold), May 17, 1973, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.

[54] MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 24, 1976, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1976); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 1, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective September 8, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 17, 1983, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1983).

[55] “LIRR Adds More Service,” The Watchman (Mattituck), October 28, 1976, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; “LIRR Rush-Hour Service to Return to North Fork,” Newsday, June 23, 1981; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 1, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road.)

[56] “LIRR Adds More Service”; “LIRR Rush-Hour Service to Return to North Fork”; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 1, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective September 8, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective November 14, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1981); Greenport Village, Anniversary Journalist: Greenport Village 150th Anniversary, 1838-1988; “Long Island Rail Road: Alphabetical Station Listing and History.”

[57] Greenport Village, Anniversary Journalist: Greenport Village 150th Anniversary, 1838-1988; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 1, 1981, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; Box 2, Book 8, Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries

[58] “LIRR Announces Schedule Changes,” Newsday (1940-1986), October 10, 1982, http://www.proquest.com; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective October 16, 1982, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1982); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective July 12, 1982, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1982); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective October 16, 1982, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1982); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective January 23, 1984, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1984); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 17, 1983, Eastern Long Island, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective October 22, 1984, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1984); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective March 18, 1985, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1985); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective October 14, 1985, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1985); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective June 9, 1986, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective January 26, 1987, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1987); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective June 22, 1987, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1987).

[59] Bill Bleyer, “Shaving Minutes from Rush Hour: LIRR Expands Electric Service on Main Line,” Newsday (Combined editions), January 17, 1988, http://www.proquest.com; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective January 18, 1988, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1988).

[60] Ibid.

[61] Tim Wacker, “Maritime Museum in Irons: Struggle Goes On vs. Financial Woes,” Suffolk Times, October 31, 1996; “Long Island Rail Road: Alphabetical Station Listing and History”; Adam Z. Horvath, “Everything from an 1845 Map to the `Dashing Dan One Man’s Devotion To Railroad Relics,” Newsday (Combined editions), May 16, 1991, http://www.proquest.com; Mitchell Freedman, “Maritime Museum to Open After Long Voyage,” Newsday (Combined editions), August 18, 1993, http://www.proquest.com; Debbie Tuma, “LIRR Expert To Sell Relics Before Exhibit,” Newsday (Combined editions), March 10, 1991, http://www.proquest.com.

[62] Michael DeMaria, “Greenport Gets 60 Parking Spots from LIRR,” Traveler Watchman, November 13, 1997; Maureen Tuthill, “All Aboard for Station Make-Overs,” Traveler Watchman, October 23, 1997.

[63] DeMaria, “Greenport Gets 60 Parking Spots from LIRR.”

[64] Tim Wacker, “Seeing Double: LIRR’s New Double-Decker Fleet Hits the North Fork Tracks,” Suffolk Times, January 7, 1999; Albert LaCombe, “Silver Streak Sighted on N. Fork,” Traveler Watchman, August 13, 1998.

[65] Wacker, “Seeing Double”; MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective November 13, 1989, Ronkonkoma Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1989); MTA Long Island Rail Road, Ronkonkoma Branch Timetable effective May 18 – September 7, 2015 (New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, 2015).

[66] MTA Long Island Rail Road, Ronkonkoma Branch Timetable effective May 18 – September 7, 2015; Vera Chinese, “Wine Train Showcases North Fork: LIRR Serving Local Vintages to Friday Night Passengers on Greenport Line,” Suffolk Times, July 21, 2011.

[67] Bleyer, “A Village’s Sea Changes”; Bill Bleyer, “New Life for an Old Greenport Fixture / Mitchell Property Rehab Includes Plans for a Marina,” Newsday (Combined editions), March 3, 2000, http://www.proquest.com; Nora McCarthy, “The East End / A Future Tied to a Maritime Past,” Newsday (Combined editions), August 25, 1996, http://www.proquest.com.

[68] Mark Harrington, “The Future of Long Island: Downtowns that Work: Greenport, It Takes a Village to Raise the Cash,” Newsday (Combined editions), May 22, 2010, http://www.proquest.com; Bill Bleyer, “New Life for an Old Greenport Fixture / Mitchell Property Rehab Includes Plans for a Marina,” Newsday (Combined editions), March 3, 2000, http://www.proquest.com; Bill Bleyer, “$200G Grant for Park,” Newsday (Combined editions), December 22, 1998, http://www.proquest.com.

[69] Bleyer, “$200G Grant for Park”; Bleyer, “New Life for an Old Greenport Fixture”; Amy Polacko, “The East End / The Greenport Renaissance,” Newsday (Combined editions), July 21, 1996, http://www.proquest.com; David Lefer, “We’re Just Horsing around Greenport Travels in the Best of Circles with its New Carousel,” Newsday (Combined editions), July 23, 1995, http://www.proquest.com.

[70] Mark Harrington, “The Future of Long Island: Downtowns that Work: Greenport, It Takes a Village to Raise the Cash,” Newsday (Combined editions), May 22, 2010, http://www.proquest.com; David J. Criblez, “Mast Appeal Greenport is Next Port of Call for the Tall Ships Challenge,” Newsday (Combined editions), May 24, 2012, http://www.proquest.com; Jim Merritt, “Once Again, Sailing Tall,” Newsday (Combined editions), July 1, 2015, http://www.proquest.com.

[71] Merritt, “Once Again, Sailing Tall.”

[72] Harrington, “The Future of Long Island”; Barbara Shea, “Discover Long Island / Greenport / A Folksy World in One Square Mile,” Newsday (Combined editions), August 31, 2001, http://www.proquest.com.

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