Glen Cove is one of the two Long Island cities. Situated on the eastern shore of Hempstead Bay in Nassau County, it was home to Gold Coast-era estates as many prominent New Yorkers settled in the community. In fact, Glen Cove was the terminus of the present-day Oyster Bay Branch of the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) in the nineteenth century. Necessity expanded the rails and Glen Cove’s stations became way stations. The following is a railroad history of Glen Cove. It explores changes in service and the upgrade of station depots.
The City of Glen Cove, the Village of Sea Cliff, and Glen Head
The City of Glen Cove was originally called Musketa, meaning a place of rushes or the cove of the grassy flats, by the Matinecock Indians, the first inhabitants. In 1668, an Englishman named Joseph Carpenter was the first European to purchase land, erecting a sawmill and house. In 1677, Carpenter and his associates were granted a patent for 1,700 acres of land by the English governor. In time, the sawmill business thrived and more land was settled. The manufacturing of leather belts was also an early industry as well as the mining of clay. About 1810, a Scottish physician named Thomas Garvie discovered that the large deposits of clay on his property at present Garvies Point were of sufficient quality for use in manufacturing pottery. In 1827, Garvie and partner Cornelius Vanderbilt began operating a steamboat between Glen Cove and New York City.
As steamboats carried prominent New Yorkers to the area, Musketa Cove by 1829 was promoted as an early Long Island summer resort in light of the grand vistas and abundant waterfront. An 1834 meeting of citizens decided that the locale’s name sounded too much like Mosquito Cove and it was changed to Glen Cove. According to local legend someone suggested Glen Coe after a locale in Scotland which was misheard as Glen Cove. In time, many country homes were constructed in the estate colonies of Red Spring, Dosoris, North Country, and Fresh Pond, with social life centered at the Nassau and Piping Rock clubs in Locust Valley. Most of the wealth was in northern Glen Cove where J.P. Morgan, F.W. Woolworth, and Charles Pratt built mansions during the Gold Coast era, which peaked about 1910 and ended after World War II. It was during this time that Glen Cove became a city in 1918 and, by 1925 boasted 11,000 inhabitants.
While most of the Gold Coast estates are long gone, a few were repurposed. Two of these belonged to the Pratt family, whose patriarch Charles Pratt was an original partner of Standard Oil Company and later founded the renowned Pratt Institute. At present-day Welwyn Preserve, his son Harold Irving Pratt owned an estate along Long Island Sound. Its Georgian-style mansion is now home to the Holocaust Memorial and Tolerance Center of Nassau County. The former fifty-five-acre estate of John Teele and Ruth Baker Pratt, built in 1910 as the Manor, is now the Glen Cove Mansion and Conference Center. John Teele Pratt was an attorney and an executive with Standard Oil Company. In 1967, the Glen Cove Mansion became one of the very first conference center hotels in the United States.
By the turn of the twenty-first century, Glen Cove’s population was 26,622. Today, one residential development is the Roxbury, a community of single-family ranch houses mostly built in the 1950s. More recently, the Legend Yacht and Beach Club, a waterfront enclave of forty homes on a former estate, was constructed. More affordable homes are in the Landing, an area named for its proximity to the former ferry and steamboat landing. There are three public bathing areas for residents at Morgan Park, Crescent Beach, and Pryibil Beach. Additionally, Nassau’s Garvies Point Museum and Preserve features five miles of nature trails on a sixty-two-acre county-owned site with an Indian archaeology and regional geology museum.
To the south of Glen Cove is the village of Sea Cliff, originally named Carpenterville in honor of the Carpenter family of Musketa Cove. In 1871, the Metropolitan Camp Ground Association of the Methodist Church bought 240 acres atop a 200-foot bluff from the Carpenter family and converted it into a camp-meeting site. Subsequently, some members of the Methodist revival group built year-round residences and many Victorian houses were constructed on the bluffs, or sea cliff, overlooking Hempstead Bay. Also at this time, German immigration brought the lawyer Frederick William Geissenhainer who became the village’s leading citizen. His philanthropies included the first public school, fire house, library, three churches, the railroad depot and the road leading to the station, which is actually in Glen Cove.
Following incorporation as Sea Cliff in 1883, the Methodist camp site was replaced by resorts at the turn of the twentieth century as steamers brought New Yorkers to take advantage of the wooded bluff overlooking Long Island Sound and the mile of shorefront. The 300-room Sea Cliff Hotel became one of the largest on the East Coast. By 1925, the village boasted a population of 8,000 in summer and 3,000 in winter. However, the resort era ended in the 1920s when the automobile made other areas like Atlantic City accessible to New Yorkers.
A rejuvenation of Sea Cliff began in 1969 by a man named Jim Aiello as many of the brick-and-stucco Tudors built in the 1920s, neo-Colonials, Cape Cods, and patched summer cottages, still remained. It was followed by the formation of the Sea Cliff Landmark Department, later to become the association, which encouraged homeowners to preserve and restore nineteenth century architecture. In 1979, the association applied for and later received federal historic district designation. Consequently, a $170,000 grant in federal community development funds in the early 1980s improved sidewalks, lighting fixtures, and store facades. Additionally, a centennial garden designed by landscape artist Argentine Zahn was completed in 1983. Today, the main business street retains a 1920s mix of small shops and Victorian buildings. As of the United States 2010 Census, the village population was 4,995.
English and Dutch settlers arrived in what is now Glen Head, originally known as Cedar Swamp, in the middle of the seventeenth century. One of the first large landowners was Englishman Hewlett Townsend, who received a royal grant to 6,000 acres. The Townsends were primarily farmers and remained the largest landowners for 200 years. During the Revolution, British troops and their Hessian supporters maintained a camp in Cedar Swamp and it is speculated that the Hessians built the first Christmas tree on American soil. When the railroad arrived in 1865, Cedar Swamp became Glen Head. While in 1900 Glen Head’s population was 600, it was 4,489 by 1994. For summer activity, nearby Harry Tappan Beach in Sea Cliff provides an outdoor swimming pool and boat launch. To the west of Glen Head along Hempstead Harbor is the one-square-mile hamlet of Glenwood Landing. By 1894, the community had one store, a post office which was established on December 1, 1891, and about a dozen homes linked by dirt roads. The waterfront landscape changed in 1905 when a small electric power plant was built on the shore. It later grew into the Long Island Lighting Company’s 15.7-acre generating station, with 246-foot smoke stacks.
The Debut of Rail Service to Glen Cove
No doubt the development of Glen Cove and other North Shore communities was aided by the ferry operation to New York. However, boats unable to dock on the frozen waters along Hempstead Bay in the winter months prompted the need for alternate transportation. In February of 1858, a Glen Cove meeting rallied for rail service and appointed a committee to suggest the LIRR construct a branch to the North Shore. In response, railroad President William M. Morris expressed interested in operation if residents funded construction. Two months later a survey was completed and a route was suggested to connect with the LIRR at Mineola.
Meanwhile, the Flushing Railroad, constructed in 1854, went bankrupt and into receivership. Seeing it as an alternative to the LIRR, North Shore residents attempted to persuade the new Flushing owners to extend the line from Flushing to Oyster Bay, a more direct route than the Long Island’s proposal. In December of 1858, the Glen Cove Branch Railroad was formally organized and some capital raised. The Board of Directors included prominent Oyster Bay townspeople such as Samuel Titus, Jacob S. Underhill, Edmund Willis, and future LIRR director Oliver Charlick who had controlling interest in the Flushing Railroad. No doubt a threat to its Main Line service, the LIRR quickly entered into an agreement with the Glen Cove Branch Railroad in May of 1859 to stonewall the Flushing idea. However, the outbreak of the Civil War put a damper on construction.
On September 23, 1863, the Flushing to Oyster Bay rail proposal was revived when the North Shore Railroad Company was established by a group of wealthy residents. Regarding it as another threat, recently-elected railroad President Charlick proposed an extension of the LIRR from Mineola to Oyster Bay. On May 30, 1863, an agreement was reached to construct as far as Glen Cove. The LIRR reluctantly financed the expensive project since it stifled expansion of the North Shore Railroad.
In time, a dispute arose as to the location of the Glen Cove terminus. One proposed right-of-way ran along Upper Glen Lake to present Mill Street. The other route was on the west side of Glen Street. Initially, the Mill Street site was selected. However, disagreements between the railroad and contractors Messrs. Shipman and Martin resulted in the road ending in present-day Glen Head. Indeed, the right-of-way between Mineola and Glen Head was inaugurated on January 23, 1865 as the first passenger engine pulled out of Glen Head at 6:30 a.m. From there a stagecoach provided access to Glen Cove. While the post office changed Cedar Swamp’s name to Greenvale in July of 1866 and then to Glenwood in January of 1874, the railroad utilized the name Glen Head from the station’s inception and a depot building was constructed near present-day Glen Head Road. Trains ran from Long Island City to Glen Head at 9 a.m., 3 p.m., and 4 p.m. daily Monday through Saturday and returned at 6:50 a.m., 10 a.m., and 2:05 p.m. Additionally, there was one Sunday roundtrip Glen Head excursion train.
Glen Head Station
|Station and depot building opened||January 23, 1865|
|Depot building replaced||May 1888|
|Three-sided, saltbox-roofed wooden passenger shelter erected (on the westbound platform)||1909 (author’s analysis)|
|Depot building replaced||April 1961|
|Flat-roofed, metal-framed Plexiglas passenger shelter erected (on the eastbound platform)||Late 1970s (author’s analysis)|
|Station agency closed||April 1, 1996 (author’s analysis)|
|Station agent assigned to platform||May – September 13, 1996 (author’s analysis)|
|Wooden passenger shelter razed||Sometime between Spring 1997 & Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
|Metal-framed Plexiglas passenger shelter razed||Sometime between Spring 1997 & Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
|Twin high-level concrete platform and ramp constructed (each with a large, shed-roofed passenger waiting area shelter and information center made of steel and enamel painted mint and light beige)||Spring 1997 – Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
At first, low ridership threatened expansion beyond Glen Head. However, the pending construction of the North Shore Railroad to Great Neck, and discussion that it be built to Glen Cove, convinced the LIRR to take action and complete the line. Grading began at the beginning of January in 1867. Ultimately, the current route from Glen Head to Glen Cove was agreed upon. President Charlick claimed the Glen Street location was ideal since it was higher ground. Years later the route was completed to Oyster Bay.
Service commenced on May 16, 1867 as the first regular roundtrip passenger train left Glen Cove at 6:30 a.m. Another celebratory train of over two hundred people in five cars left Glen Cove at 8:30 a.m. on its way to Long Island City. Initial service included four trains a day each way, plus a freight train. Charlick also assigned a parlor car, the line’s premium service, to the branch. The station featured a combination two-story depot and freight house. Additionally, a way station was set up in Sea Cliff near present-day Sea Cliff Avenue and a wooden depot constructed.
Sea Cliff Station
|Station and depot building opened||May 16, 1867|
|Depot building replaced||May 1888|
|Three-sided, saltbox-roofed wooden passenger shelter erected (on the eastbound platform)||1909 (author’s analysis)|
|Three-sided, saltbox-roofed wooden passenger shelter erected (on the westbound platform)||After 1909 (author’s analysis)|
|Wooden passenger shelter razed (on the westbound platform)||By 1995 (author’s analysis)|
|Station agency closed||April 1, 1996 (author’s analysis)|
|Station agent assigned to platform||May – September 13, 1996 (author’s analysis)|
|Wooden passenger shelter razed (on the eastbound platform)||Sometime between Summer 1997 & Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
|Depot building renovation began||July 31, 1997|
|Depot building renovation completed||Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
|Twin high-level concrete platform and ramp constructed (each with a three-sided, saltbox-roofed wooden passenger shelter)||Summer 1997 – Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
Glen Street Station
|Station and depot building opened as Glen Cove Station||May 16, 1867|
|Renamed Glen Cove (Glen Street)||September 1895 (timetable)|
|Depot building replaced||October 1898|
|Three-sided, saltbox-roofed wooden passenger shelter erected (on the eastbound platform)||1923 (author’s analysis)|
|Wooden passenger shelter razed||1947 (author’s analysis)|
|Three-sided, shed-roofed metal passenger shelter erected (on the eastbound platform)||Early 1960s (author’s analysis)|
|Renamed Glen Street Station||January 1972 (author’s analysis)|
|Station agency closed||November 20, 1996 (author’s analysis)|
|Metal passenger shelter razed||Sometime between Summer 1997 & Fall 1998 (author’s analysis)|
|Depot building renovated||Summer 1997 – Fall 1998 (author’s analysis)|
|Twin high-level concrete platform and ramp constructed (each with a large, shed-roofed passenger waiting area shelter and information center made of steel and enamel painted mint and light beige)||Summer 1997 – Fall 1998 (author’s analysis)|
Depot Renovations and an Auxiliary Station
Station upgrades materialized at the end of nineteenth century. First, both Glen Head and Sea Cliff received identical Victorian depot buildings in May of 1888, complete with elaborate canopy bracing. In Sea Cliff it was north of Sea Cliff Avenue on the west side of the tracks. Costing between $3,000 and $4,000, the new brick building featured a roof that projected beyond the eaves on the sides and ends, forming a broad veranda over the entire platform. The interior was finished with a narrow, beaded-yellow, pine ceiling. The Glen Head structure was on the east side of the tracks south of Glen Head Road. A freight depot was also constructed south of the Glen Head passenger building opposite Walnut Avenue.
Secondly, in early 1895 the Gold Coast estate communities at Fresh Pond and Red Springs, as well as the Charles Pratt estate, advocated the relocation of Glen Cove Station to the present-day Duck Pond Road railroad crossing. Residents envisioned that the center of the village be built around the new site. The idea was considered by the state board of railroad commissioners and a meeting was set up on May 1 in town hall where residents presented two petitions. By the end of May, the board gave approval for the construction of the new station with money subscribed by private parties. However, the old station at Glen Street was to remain. The foundation of the new depot building just northwest of Duck Pond Road was set in mid-July and the work was completed in September. The station was put in service when new timetables were in effect. Costing $5,000, the new brick building was L-shaped, accentuated by an octagonal tower, massive brick chimney, rounded porticos, and massive roof beams. The low-level platform at grade was built of concrete and cement eighteen inches thick, extending 400-feet along the track twelve-feet wide.
Glen Cove Station
|Station and depot building opened||September 1895 (timetable)|
|Renamed Nassau (Glen Cove) Station||1900|
|Renamed Glen Cove Station||June 28, 1911|
|Three-sided, shed-roofed metal passenger shelter erected (on the eastbound platform)||Early 1960s (author’s analysis)|
|Station agency closed||November 6, 1996 (author’s analysis)|
|Metal passenger shelter razed||Sometime between Summer 1997 & Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
|Twin high-level concrete platform and ramp constructed (each with a large, shed-roofed passenger waiting area shelter and information center made of steel and enamel painted mint and light beige)||Summer 1997 – Summer 1998 (author’s analysis)|
Initially, the stations were designated as Glen Cove (Glen Street) and Glen Cove. However, beginning about 1900 they were referred to as Glen Cove (Glen Street) and Nassau (Glen Cove) to avoid any confusion between the similarities. Nassau remained its nomenclature until it officially became Glen Cove on June 28, 1911. Railroad timetables continued to designate the two stations as Glen Cove (Glen Street) and Glen Cove well into the twentieth century. With the introduction of new fare zones in January of 1972, the identification was changed to Glen Street and Glen Cove.
The final improvement was at the Glen Street Station, formerly Glen Cove Station. In September of 1898, LIRR President William H. Baldwin asserted that a new station building was needed and gave orders that work commence as soon as possible. The replacement depot was a multiple hip-roof brick building completed in October of 1898. It was originally adorned with a curved dormer and roof-point pinnacles which were later removed.
Other improvements for the line emerged in the early twentieth century. Work on a second track from Roslyn to Glen Cove began in 1907 and was completed in 1909. In light of this, a wooden pedestrian overpass was constructed at Sea Cliff Station to connect the two platforms and three-sided, saltbox-roofed wooden passenger shelters were erected at both Glen Head and Sea Cliff Stations. At Glen Head, it was built on the westbound platform across from the depot building. At Sea Cliff, one was built on the westbound platform near the stairs leading up to the depot building and the pedestrian overpass, and the other was on the eastbound platform across from the depot building adjacent to a new pedestrian overpass. By this time, the low-level platforms extended from the Sea Cliff Avenue crossing to a point beyond the depot building on both sides of the track. The overpass was removed in 1956 and the westbound shelter was razed by 1995.
Later in the twentieth century the right-of-way east of Sea Cliff Station was relocated for the construction of what was then called the Glen Cove Arterial Highway, today’s Glen Cove Road which runs from Northern Boulevard to Glen Cove. The original route of the Oyster Bay Branch crossed the proposed highway route on a high embankment about 1,000-feet west of Cedar Swamp Road. However, in early 1959 the New York State Public Service Commission (PSC) approved the plan to move the line. They claimed it was less expensive, more efficient and more aesthetically pleasing than building a bridge where the tracks were located. It would also avoid disruption, improve track alignment, and eliminate the need for temporary tracks. In March 1959 the State Department of Public Works got the go-ahead to move the right-of-way fifty feet south. As constructed, the new road ran south from Pratt Boulevard and connected with other roads on the South Shore. The tracks were elevated above the road on a two-span concrete and steel railroad bridge built at a cost of $656,530 paid for by the state.
State Annexation of the Long Island Rail Road
In the postwar era, the plight of the LIRR required that New York State assume a leadership role in railroad operations. Ultimately, the action affected all branches, including the Oyster Bay. The chain of events began with a formal declaration of LIRR bankruptcy by its corporate parent the Pennsylvania Railroad. Before trustees were appointed to take over the troubled road, railroad traffic manager Henry A. Weiss proposed abandonment of the Oyster Bay Branch at a meeting of the Midway Park Civic Association in Locust Valley. Although he submitted that the future of the island depended on the railroad, Weiss suggested the proposal was cost-effective. In another economic effort, the railroad asked that the three station plazas within the City of Glen Cove be withdrawn from a city tax lien sale. In total, the LIRR owed over $4,000 in unpaid 1949 taxes ($2,228 for Glen Street, $554 for Glen Cove, and $1,807 for Sea Cliff). However, city attorney Nathan Dorfman shot down the request.
When the Long Island Transit Authority (LITA) was created by the state to develop a railroad reorganization plan, Oyster Bay Branch abandonment resurfaced. In response, the Glen Cove and Oyster Bay Chambers of Commerce and the North Shore Commuters Association sponsored a town hall meeting. In attendance were the Glen Cove Lions Club, Glen Cove Rotary Club, and the village of Sea Cliff. The fifty delegates and representatives criticized the idea, calling for the creation of a special state authority to purchase the railroad and run it efficiently. Subsequently, in March of 1954 the North Shore Commuters Association, along with fifteen other civic and commuter groups, sent a telegram to New York State Governor Dewey stressing the need for state ownership of the railroad. They claimed any delay which enabled LITA, or any other state-legislated authority, to buy and run the railroad put a “damper on sound management and control for safe and sound operation.” The association went on to say that in the fifty years that the Pennsylvania Railroad ran operations there was little progress. For example, in 1889 a train from Oyster Bay took sixty-one minutes to get to Long Island City while in 1954 it took thirty minutes longer.
With the goal of rehabilitating the LIRR, LITA set out to devise a reorganization plan. However, progress proceeded slowly. In fact, in June of 1953 LITA threatened to abandon the project and allow the Pennsylvania to resume full operation. The qualm developed over a potential court ruling allowing trustee William Wyer to proceed with plans to settle both Nassau and Suffolk tax payments. The issue was settled and LITA continued outlining a plan to mixed public opinion as commuters and citizens alike were suspect as to the role of the Pennsylvania Railroad. North Shore Commuters Association President Nathan Klein criticized negotiations between LITA and the corporate giant. In particular, the Sea Cliff resident feared that the Pennsylvania would gain too much control of the LIRR since a $5,000,000 investment was part of the deal. He supported the original idea of the state transit authority, as recommended by a governor’s panel in 1951.
Ultimately, the New York State Public Service Commission (PSC) supported the decision reached between LITA and the Pennsylvania in May of 1954. With a $5,500,000 loan from the Pennsylvania, the LIRR was taken out of bankruptcy and embarked on a twelve-year $58,000,000 improvement program. A special arrangement regulated fares whereby the Pennsylvania had the right to hike fares so long as it paid operating costs and was not a return on investment. In response, Klein sought legal action, calling the deal a sell-out to appease the Pennsylvania. On November 25, 1957, he asked State Supreme Court Justice Cortland A. Johnson to nullify the reorganization plan. Attacking its constitutionality, Klein said that permitting fare increases deprived the commuter due process of law and delegated powers to private industry. He would however lose his battle as Johnson ruled he had no basis for a case.
While the twelve-year program brought some needed rehabilitation and depot renovation for the Glen Cove area (discussed in the next section), in the end a state-run authority came to fruition and the LIRR was taken out of the private sector. In 1965, New York State Governor Nelson D. Rockefeller authorized legislation that created the Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Authority (MCTA), a new public agency designed to own and operate the LIRR after New York formally purchased it. In a short time, Rockefeller sanctioned the creation of an “umbrella-like state transportation agency” to expand the MCTA and give it control of the New York City Transit Authority and the Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority. To initiate the transition, the State Legislature passed new amendments to the state’s public authorities law creating a Metropolitan Transportation District and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) to be in charge. For the MTA’s creation, the governor secured a $2.5 billion transportation bond issue with $1.25 billion earmarked for mass transit. The MTA switch occurred on March 1, 1968. Ultimately, the change of hands was symbolized, perhaps, by the replacement of the LIRR’s old “Dashing Dan” insignia with a big “M” in October of 1968 as a logotype relating to all parts of the system.
Both Authority Chairman William Ronan and Rockefeller claimed the LIRR was to be a model line within two years following the installation of 620 new electric cars. However, from 1966 to 1969 the LIRR witnessed twenty-six strikes, strike threats, slowdowns, and work stoppages. One episode occurred in November of 1968 when the railroad unveiled a new timetable designed to reduce train crew overtime to make way for the new cars. The result was a two-day walkout of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen and a one-day strike by the engineer’s union. Better days were indeed ahead.
Station Modifications Following State Action
In the postwar era, the LIRR carried out several depot modifications. North Shore resident and commuter groups continued to be ever so vocal of both service and station maintenance. Commuters condemned the lack of shelter to block the elements at Glen Street Station forcing the railroad to erect a three-sided, shed-roofed metal passenger shelter on the eastbound platform to replace a 1923 wooden shelter razed in 1947. By this time, the low-level platforms extended from the Glen Street crossing to a point beyond the depot building on both sides of the track. Criticism over unsanitary conditions at the Sea Cliff depot and safety concerns at the station’s grade crossing forced the PSC to hold hearings in December of 1952. After the hearings, the safety issue at the Sea Cliff Avenue crossing convinced Glen Cove city officials to file a petition with the PSC for the LIRR to install automatic crossing gates and a warning bell. Formerly, the railroad repeatedly refused citing that trains traveled on average ten to fifteen miles-per-hour in light of the station stop. Nevertheless, the PSC ordered the railroad to install the equipment. In the MTA-era, a portion of the eastbound station facilities west of Sea Cliff Avenue was taken out of service and removed on December 16, 1983 for additional safety.
During the twelve-year rehabilitation program there were other notable alterations. In 1960, all four depots (Glen Cove, Glen Street, Sea Cliff, and Glen Head) received new paint as part of a station depot painting program where communities decided color selection. Glen Cove also received a three-sided, shed-roofed metal passenger shelter on the eastbound platform across from the depot building. By this time, the low-level platforms extended from a point beyond the depot building to Duck Pond Road on both sides of the track.
Although its passenger depot received new paint, Glen Head’s freight service was discontinued. As authorized by the PSC on January 28, 1960, the LIRR commissioned the Long Island City freight office as the service center for the handling of less-than-carload (LCL) freight to and from all points on Long Island. The result was the end of rail freight service at Glen Head as customers now paid a combined freight rate and service charge directly to Long Island City. The LIRR described the concept as a “modern, efficient, and flexible service” substituting a former “rigid, inefficient and wasteful” handling of LCL. Carload freight continued on the Oyster Bay Branch until mid-1982.
More changes at Glen Head were in store. To solve commuter parking woes the town of Oyster Bay unveiled plans on February 12, 1961 to expand the parking lot and construct a new railroad depot. The completed project increased parking 300 percent as the town board acquired three parcels of land at a cost of $19,000. Additionally, the old depot on the east side of the tracks demolished in April of 1961 and replaced with a new, colonial-style structure on the west side of the tracks one-hundred feet north of Walnut Avenue. Lastly, modifications included the installation of automatic crossing gates at Locust Avenue, the conversion of Walnut Avenue to a one-way street, and the accessibility of Locust Avenue from the station. By this time, the low-level platforms extended between the Locust Avenue and Glen Head Road crossings on both sides of the track.
The greatest overall changes were instituted in the late twentieth century as the installation of QuickTicket vending machines negated the need for station agents at lightly-used stations. However, no action was taken to remove agencies until the mid-1990s. First, an extra charge was levied in 1991 to encourage riders to buy tickets before boarding. When a station’s agency was open or a vending machine was available, a $2 penalty fee was charged for tickets bought on trains from the conductor. Secondly, beginning on July 23, 1992 ticket office hours at many stations were altered to allow for early agency purchases for rush-hour customers. Closing times also changed at some stations resulting in reduced hours at lightly-used stations. On the North Shore, Glen Street, Glen Head, and Sea Cliff were now open from 6:10 a.m. to 1:45 p.m. Glen Cove Station’s hours were 6:10 a.m. to 9:45 a.m.
While the new hours limited agency purchases, the offices remained opened. However, a New York State Comptroller’s audit released to the public in May of 1994 revealed that the LIRR wasted money paying ticket sellers and maintaining ticket vending machines at lightly-used stations. In fact, the audit suggested that the need for ticket sellers at Glen Street, Sea Cliff, and Glen Head was not justified. It went on to say that the railroad could save $922,000 annually by closing these offices as well as nine others.
Railroad officials agreed with the audit’s findings. In trying to come up with a solution, they planned to monitor passenger levels more closely. Less than two years later, the LIRR announced that it planned to close thirty-two station agencies leaving passengers to buy tickets at vending machines. As of April 1, 1996, agencies were closed at low-volume stations or those which sold less than 3,000 tickets a month. The station list included Glen Head and Sea Cliff. Additionally, by July the railroad intended to eliminate the agencies at Glen Street and Glen Cove and install vending machines. Station waiting rooms would remain open from about 4:30 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. seven days a week, with doors locked and unlocked automatically from a central location. In total, the entire plan was expected to reduce the railroad’s approved $654.2 million operating budget by $2.1 million.
In response, Nassau County and three organizations for the disabled sued the railroad contending that visually impaired riders incurred “irreparable harm” because of the absence of ticket clerks. After a hearing, Judge Leonard D. Wexler of Federal District Court in Hauppauge issued an injunction on May 30 giving the railroad the choice to reopen ticket windows or assign ticket agents on platforms from 6:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. Taking the later for Glen Head and Sea Cliff Stations, agents were assigned to the platforms to assist commuters with vending machines while the agency remained closed. The injunction was eventually overturned in early September. Meanwhile, vending machines replaced agents at both Glen Cove and Glen Street, with the former closing November 6 and the latter on November 20.
Direct Rail Service to Manhattan
When Glen Cove passenger service was initiated, LIRR trains traveled to Long Island City where ferries ran to Manhattan. However, the completion of the East River tunnels in 1910 allowed for direct access to Pennsylvania (Penn) Station in Manhattan. While ferry use continued well into the twentieth century, gradually Long Island City became less a rail terminus considering an electric train ride into the city was a quicker means to reach Manhattan. On the Oyster Bay Branch, the tracks were not electrified as far as Glen Cove Station. Motive power depended on steam locomotives which were prohibited in the East River tunnels due to the exhaust generated. Therefore, electric service to Manhattan was not available directly from Glen Head and Glen Cove rail stations. Most Oyster Bay Branch trains terminated or originated at Jamaica, with a select few still traveling west of Jamaica by way of the Main Line or Montauk Branch to Long Island City or the new Hunterspoint Avenue station.
To provide steam passengers a one-seat ride into New York, the LIRR purchased electric locomotives that carried consists into the city once the steam engine was detached. By 1942, the daily Monday through Saturday Oyster Bay Branch rush-hour schedule featured eastbound train number 552 from Penn Station and westbound number 523 into Penn Station. Service west of Jamaica was also provided by eastbound train number 556 departing Long Island City utilizing the Montauk Branch and westbound number 519 traveling to Hunterspoint Avenue and Long Island City via the Main Line. All other trains primarily used Jamaica as an origin or terminus where passengers changed trains to travel to and from western terminals.
Subsequent to bankruptcy, the LIRR sought to economize. On June 11, 1951, trustee William H. Draper Jr. announced that the railroad planned to discontinue eleven trains which operated into and out of Penn Station by means of electric locomotives. Since a locomotive change required manpower as authorized by the PSC, the plan both retired older electric locomotives and provided a cost effective measure. These trains would now originate or terminate in Jamaica or Long Island City. The plan also facilitated conversion to automatic speed control, which was inaugurated in the spring of 1952. The control devices installed on the electric locomotives necessitated that they back out through the tunnels to pass completely through a signal control point while on the multiple-unit consists control equipment was on the rear and head cars. Annual savings was estimated between $250,000 and $300,000.
The prudent plan went into effect Sunday, June 24, 1951 at the cost of a one-seat ride into Penn Station on all Oyster Bay trains, requiring conductors to utter the famous phrase “change at Jamaica.” The former eastbound train number 552 from Penn Station now traveled from Long Island City via the Montauk Branch, while number 523 (by this time renumbered to 525) terminated at Hunterspoint Avenue via the Main Line. The other eastbound Long Island City train was eastbound train number 554 which utilized the Montauk Branch. The remaining westbound schedule was as follows: both numbers 507 and 521 utilized the Montauk Branch on their way to Long Island City and 523 traveled the Main Line to Hunterspoint Avenue. The rest of Oyster Bay Branch service originated or terminated at Jamaica or Mineola.
The new schedule upheld the customary practice for select non-electrified rush-hour service, now utilizing diesel fuel, to begin or end their runs at Long Island City terminals where subway facilities provided service to New York. The Oyster Bay Branch chiefly traveled the Montauk Branch west of Jamaica and was the only branch to serve local stations and Long Island City Station. By 1973, these included eastbound numbers 560 and 562, and westbound 503 and 507. The schedule changed in the spring of 1974 as train number 503 was altered to terminate at Hunterspoint Avenue using the Main Line. Westbound rush-hour train numbers 509 and 511 also terminated at Hunterspoint Avenue. When train number 509 was extended to terminate at Long Island City beginning February 10, 1975, the branch again had four trains that terminated at Long Island City Station (three via the Montauk Branch and one via the Main Line). More revisions followed on May 23, 1977 as train number 509 was cut-back to Hunterspoint Avenue. However, the following year it was redirected to run via the Montauk Branch to Long Island City. By 1984, the timetable for Oyster Bay Branch trains west of Jamaica was somewhat stabilized. Eastbound train numbers 560 and 562 utilized the Montauk Branch. Westbound numbers 503 and 509 to Hunterspoint Avenue used the Main Line and 507 to Long Island City traveled the Montauk Branch. The set-up endured until March of 1998.
It was at this time in the 1990s that another one-seat ride to Penn Station was outlined. As part of a diesel fleet replacement, the MTA and the LIRR purchased both dual-mode diesel-electric and diesel-electric locomotives. The dual-mode engines meant passengers would not have to change trains at Jamaica but could directly travel to Penn Station since the engines utilized third-rail power within the East River tunnels. With the pending arrival of a one-seat ride into Manhattan, the Association of Realtors for the City of Glen Cove, Mayor Suozzi, the City Council, the Business Improvement District, and the Chamber of Commerce called on citizens to demand better LIRR services. On September 15, 1997, Glen Cove commuters were greeted by Association of Realtor members and asked to sign a petition. Association chairman Alice. C. Benazzi argued that ridership would increase if schedules fit passengers’ needs and competed with other lines. She went on to say that the cycle of comparison and neglect caused property values to decline, businesses to fail and pollution to increase as a result of the many drivers who would be riders given the equipment and schedules. In the letter, the association demanded the railroad provide one express rush-hour train, originating in Oyster Bay, with stops at Glen Street, Roslyn, Mineola, and Penn Station.
Since new coaches purchased in the $350 million replacement project did not have the steps allowing passengers to disembark onto low-level platforms, new high-level station platforms needed to be constructed. They made getting on and off a train quicker, and allowed the railroad to comply with the American with Disabilities Act. The budget to erect new platforms was set at $42 million. To be cost-effective the LIRR proposed the closure of thirteen lightly-used stations. Twelve of the thirteen served at most thirty passengers each day which did not justify the cost of platform construction. The railroad projected $8.3 million in savings through discontinuation of all thirteen stations. However, the railroad’s proposal required public hearings because it was not simply a change in service but rather abandonment.
The thirteenth station was Glen Street which served 168 rush-hour passengers. A hearing was scheduled at Roslyn’s Claremont Hotel on January 21, 1997 for residents to voice opposition. One argument was that Glen Street had the largest parking field of all stations within the city. In fact, two years earlier the LIRR spent $100,000 to upgrade it. Glen Cove Mayor Thomas Suozzi claimed “Glen Street Station [was] an invaluable part of [the] community, historically and for [the] future,” adding that “[closure was] ill-conceived.” He also argued that the Glen Cove and Sea Cliff Stations could not absorb the existing Glen Street parking or the envisioned patronage in light of dual-mode trains. Ultimately, thirty-five persons spoke against the proposed closure at the hearing, attended by about 100 people.
However, a few days prior to the hearing, Nassau County Executive Thomas Gulotta issued a press release announcing an agreement to save Glen Street Station was reached. Indeed, discussion between the county and the MTA transpired in 1996. The agreement’s details were made public on March 6, 1997. Since the MTA contended that the station’s design made it prohibitively expensive to upgrade, the county paid for the renovations as part of a deal to make up a county budget shortfall. To that end, the county agreed to pay $102 million in LIRR capital projects and the MTA agreed to waive $51 million in station maintenance fees that the county would have paid over a two-year period. In the short term, the county saved money in its operating budget. In the long term, it borrowed $102 million to fund MTA projects. In the end, the $2.5 million needed for Glen Street Station renovation was added to the list of projects the county paid for. The work also included a renovation of the station depot building and waiting room.
With all three Glen Cove stations and Glen Head to remain open, construction commenced on both eastbound and westbound high-level platforms, complete with new shelters. By May of 1997, work was underway at Glen Head with the southern end of both low-level platforms closed and passengers required to use the northern section. During construction, the wooden passenger shelter on the westbound platform and a 1970s-era, metal-framed Plexiglas passenger shelter on the eastbound platform were razed. In the end, two new platforms the length of four new bi-level coaches were constructed just west of the depot building. Sea Cliff and Glen Cove also received platforms that held four coaches. Sea Cliff’s platforms were erected adjacent to the depot building and extend eastward while Glen Cove’s platforms were built just west of the depot building. To expedite work, one track taken out of service in the spring and summer of 1998 during the midday hours.
At Sea Cliff, station work was accompanied by a renovation of the historic depot building. Back in 1989, the Sea Cliff Landmarks Association managed to get the structure on the National Historic Register. Therefore, renovation was now in accordance with provisions of the National Historic Preservation Act and the depot was preserved as close as possible to its original design. LIRR President Thomas F. Prendergast appropriated approximately $1 million for the project which included restoration of the structural elements of the building and its canopies, repointing of the masonry exterior, and replacement of ornamental brick. The old gingerbread ornamentations and turnings were restored and refinished as well. The building also received new interior finishes such as windows, doors, electrical, plumbing, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Lastly, an accessible bathroom was installed in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and new exterior antique lighting replaced existing fixtures. Work began with a launching ceremony on July 31, 1997. Restoration was completed by Pav-Lak Industries of Happauge, with total cost estimated at $900,000. To maintain station architecture, wooden shelters were installed on the new four-foot-high platforms. Prior to the station upgrade, the wooden passenger shelter on the eastbound platform was razed.
Glen Street’s new high-level platforms became the subject of criticism during and after their construction. To the dismay of commuters and local officials, both platforms were designed long enough to accommodate only one and-a-half cars in lieu of the curved track and ridership statistics. In a letter sent to President Prendergast and printed in the Glen Cove Record Pilot in November of 1998, Glen Cove City Councilman Steve Gonzalez reported that his constituents called the platforms a travesty and inconvenience. After personally visiting the site, Gonzalez observed that passengers were prohibited from boarding the west end of each platform in light of construction. Noting the short length of the platforms, he went on to say that the station was treated as a stepchild and that the gap between the train and platform was hazardous. Lastly, the councilman advocated two roundtrip dual-mode trains to Penn Station rather than the single roundtrip demanded by the Association of Realtors.
Upon completion of the new platforms, another commentary in the Glen Cove Record Pilot cited that while in theory the platforms accommodated one-and-a-half cars, the platform in reality served “only partial access to two cars and not full access to one and partial access to another.” The author W. Michael Shaffer went on to say that commuters would forever be inconvenienced since westbound passengers had to board a single car and then walk back for seats and eastbound passengers were plagued with having to walk through the train to find the right doors to disembark. He also critiqued the new platform shelters claiming they did not provide adequate shelter from cold, wind, rain, or snow. Lastly, he added that the new platforms, built just west of the depot building, were designed and constructed not for passenger convenience but rather to satisfy LIRR officials.
Years after the late-1990s station renovations, the death of a Minnesota teenager at Woodside Station in August 2007 prompted the state Public Transportation Safety Board to investigate gap problems between the platform and train cars at LIRR stations. The teen fell into the gap and was killed by a train passing on the adjacent track. The five-month investigation published in January of 2008 found that the LIRR had about 900 gap incidents during the previous decade. Beginning in February 2008 the LIRR began working to reduce the dangerous spaces by moving tracks or adjusting platforms, especially those where the gaps were greater than 10 inches. Two stations on the list were Glen Street and Glen Cove. By April, work was completed at Glen Street and, by September at Glen Cove.
A single train of four new bi-level diesel coaches was brought into service on the Oyster Bay Branch at the start of 1999. Since the dual-mode diesel-electrics were not ready for service, the consist was powered diesel-electric locomotives. To the displeasure of commuters, it was scheduled during the non-rush-hour.
The one-seat rush-hour ride was finally inaugurated in the spring of 2000 as dual-modes were placed in service. First, to accommodate the new fleet some rush-hour trains were altered. Timetables effective November 15, 1999 re-routed the former eastbound train number 562 to originate at Jamaica rather than Long Island City. Also, westbound train number 503 terminated at Jamaica rather than Hunterspoint Avenue. The remaining schedule west of Jamaica was maintained to its 1980s status: both numbers 560 and 507 utilized the Montauk Branch, and 509 and 511 ran on the Main Line to Hunterspoint Avenue. Effective March 20, 2000, eastbound train number 564 was added to the rush-hour schedule, departing Penn Station on its way to Oyster Bay. Westbound number 503 was re-routed to now terminate at Penn Station. The new set up gave Glen Cove riders the long-anticipated one-seat ride.
Fifteen years later the timetable persists. Penn Station direct service remains restricted to train numbers 564 and 503 making all local station stops. In fact, service west of Jamaica somewhat mirrors early timetables, with train numbers 507, 509, and 511 utilizing the Main Line to either Long Island City or Hunterspoint Avenue, and 560 departing Long Island City on the Main Line. The other new additions are 558 and 566, both depart Hunterspoint Avenue. All other service to Glen Cove and beyond originate or terminate at Jamaica or Mineola.
In a letter to the editor of the Glen Cove Record Pilot printed on December 17, 2014, author Adam Ramadan cited that the most pressing problem on the Oyster Bay Branch was lack of express service to Penn Station as express trains on other branches typically skipped stops in order to quicken the overall trip. Ramadan also added that considering about 70,000 people lived along the route, with approximately 27,000 in the City of Glen Cove alone, express service would not only cut down the number of stops but reverse the trend of commuters who choose to drive to neighboring stations such as Mineola, Hicksville or Syosset rather than utilize Oyster Bay Branch stations. A LIRR Origins & Destinations study in 2006 revealed that the average ridership of the branch falls in the bottom third of the system. Glen Street Station ranked ninety-forth in average ridership, while Glen Cove was ninety-seventh.
While not a solution to the call for express service, the LIRR currently proposes scoot train service between Oyster Bay and Mineola as a future capital project. At a meeting held on October 1, 2013 at the Roslyn Public Library, LIRR officials outlined an idea that would give riders half-hourly service. The trains would terminate in a siding built in Mineola adjacent to the regular platform with easy access to westbound Main Line trains. While the current round-trip one-seat ride to Penn Station is set to remain, the scoot service would serve to both complement service and replace the current diesel-electric trains that have endured over fifteen years of a thirty-five-year lifespan.
 Henry Isham Hazelton, The Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, Counties of Nassau and Suffolk, Long Island, New York, 1609-1924 (New York: Lewis Historical, 1925), 916-917; John Rather, “If You’re Thinking of Living In/Glen Cove: An Unusually Inclusive Gold Coast City,” New York Times (1923-Current file), December 16, 2001, http://www.proquest.com; Antonia Petrash, Carol Stern, and Carol McCrossen, “History of Glen Cove,” Glen Cove Public Library, accessed March 12, 2015, http://www.glencovelibrary.org/history/historyofglencove.html.
 Hazelton, Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, Counties of Nassau and Suffolk, Long Island, New York, 1609-1924, 916-917.; Rather, “If You’re Thinking of Living In/Glen Cove”; Petrash, Stern, and McCrossen, “History of Glen Cove.”
 “About Us,” Glen Cove Mansion and Conference Center, accessed on March 10, 2015, http://www.glencovemansion.com/about_us/History.asp; “Welwyn Preserve County Park,” New York-New Jersey Trail Conference, accessed on March 10, 2015, http://www.nynjtc.org/park/welwyn-preserve-0.
 Rather, “If You’re Thinking of Living In/Glen Cove.”
 Staff of Long Island, Our Story, Home Town Long Island: the History of Every Community on Long Island in Stories and Photographs (Melville, NY: Newsday, 1999), 58; Rhoda Amon, “Sea Cliff: 100 Years of Down-to-Earth Charm,” Newsday (1940-1986), July 17, 1983, http://www.proquest.com; Hazelton, Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, Counties of Nassau and Suffolk, Long Island, New York, 1609-1924, 916.
 Amon, “Sea Cliff”; Hazelton, Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, Counties of Nassau and Suffolk, Long Island, New York, 1609-1924, 916; Staff of Long Island, Our Story, Home Town Long Island, 58.
 Staff of Long Island, Our Story, Home Town Long Island, 58; Lawrence C. Levy, “Group in Sea Cliff Applies for Historic District Status,” Newsday (1940-1986), May 13, 1979, http://www.proquest.com; Amon, “Sea Cliff”; “Vital Statistics”; Sea Cliff, NY, accessed on June 25, 2014, http://www.seacliff-ny.gov/about-the-village/vital-statistics.
 Staff of Long Island, Our Story, Home Town Long Island, 51; Vivien Kellerman, “If You’re Thinking of Living In: Glen Head,” New York Times (1923-Current file), October 23, 1994, http://www.proquest.com.
 Vincent F. Seyfried, The Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, vol. 3, Age of Expansion (Garden City, NY: Seyfried, 1984), 9-10.
 Ibid., 8-12.
 Ibid., 12-13.
 Ibid., 13-17.
 Ibid., 203-204.
 “Long Island Railroad Winter Arrangement, Commencing Monday, Jan. 23d, 1865,” Long Islander (Huntington), April 14, 1865, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.
 Seyfried, Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, vol. 3, 18-20.
 Ibid., 20; Vincent F. Seyfried, The Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, vol. 6, The Golden Age 1881-1900 (Garden City, NY: Seyfried, 1984), 277.
 Ron Ziel and Richard Wettereau, Victorian Railroad Stations of Long Island (Bridgehampton, NY: Sunrise Special Ltd., 1988), 75; “Sea Cliff, its Start and Growth,” Long Islander (Huntington), April 21, 1888, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; Gold Coast Public Library, Belcher-Hyde Map of Glen Head, Glenwood Landing, and East Williston, 1906, Long Island Memories, Gold Coast Public Library, Glen Head, NY, accessed March 13, 2015, http://cdm16373.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15281coll6/id/5.
 “Glen Cove,” Long Islander (Huntington), February 23, 1895, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; “Glen Cove,” Long Islander (Huntington), May 4, 1895, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; “Glen Cove,” Long Islander (Huntington), May 25, 1895, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; “Glen Cove,” Long Islander (Huntington), July 13, 1895, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; “Glen Cove,” Long Islander (Huntington), September 14, 1895, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; Ziel and Wettereau, Victorian Railroad Stations of Long Island, 71.
 Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 13, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective June 23, 1898, Main Line Timetable, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1898), Oyster Bay Branch; Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 13, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective October 18, 1900, Long Island Rail Road,Time Tables, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1900), Oyster Bay Branch; Vincent F. Seyfried, The Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, vol. 7, The Age of Electrification 1901-1916 (Garden City, NY: Seyfried, 1984), 345-346; MTA The Long Island Rail Road Company, Long Island Rail Road Timetable No. 4, effective 12:01 AM, Monday, November 25, 1968 (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1968), Oyster Bay Branch; “Zone Fares for LIRR as Approved by the MTA,” New York Times (1857 – Current file), January 22, 1972, http://www.proquest.com..
 Ziel and Wettereau, Victorian Railroad Stations of Long Island, 140; “Island News Notes,” Suffolk County News (Sayville), September 30, 1898, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.
 “Double Track to Glen Cove,” Long Island Farmer (Jamaica), January 18, 1907, http://nyshistoricnewspapers.org; “Some Interesting Information,” Long Island Farmer (Jamaica), December 25, 1908, http://nyshistoricnewspapers.org; Railroad Video Productions, Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay (Leola, PA: Railroad Video Productions, 1994); Box 5, Book 19, Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries; “LIRR 251 at Sea Cliff,” Flickr, accessed on March 6, 2016, http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3147/3511176343_7cd7f1b12d.jpg.
 “Plan to Move LIRR Tracks Okd by PSC,” Newsday (1940-1988), March 6, 1959, http://www.proquest.com.
 “LIRR May Abandon O. Bay Branch, Traffic Chief Warns Commuters,” Newsday (1940-1986), March 8, 1949, http://www.proquest.com; “Glen Cove Sets Sale of RR Station Plazas,” Newsday (1940-1986), June 22, 1950, http://www.proquest.com.
 “Thirteen Civic Groups Unite to ‘Save’ Oyster Bay RR Line,” Newsday (1940-1986), January 26, 1954, http://www.proquest.com.
 ”LIRR Worse than Ever, Riders Tell Dewey; Urge LITA Control,” Newsday (1940-1986), March 19, 1954, http://www.proquest.com.
 Madeline Ryttenburg, “LITA Threatens to Abandon RR,” Newsday (1940-1986), June 2, 1953, http://www.proquest.com.
 “Hit Prospect of Tightening Pennsy Grip on the LIRR,” Newsday (1940-1986), May 21, 1954, http://www.proquest.com.
 “PSC Boss Backs LIRR Plan, 20% Hike Certain,” Newsday (1940-1986), May 27, 1954, http://www.proquest.com.
 “Suit Attacks Legality of LIRR Reorganization,” Newsday (1940-1986), November 26, 1957, http://www.proquest.com.
 “Klein’s Action against LIRR is Dismissed,” Newsday (1940-1986), December 6, 1957, http://www.proquest.com.
 Andrew J. Sparberg, From a Nickel to a Token: the Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA (New York: Empire State Editions, an imprint of Fordham University Press, 2015), 160-161; Harvey Aronsen, “Why They Deride the LIRR,” Newsday (1940-1986), January 25, 1969, http://www.proquest.com.
 “LIRR in Doghouse Again,” Newsday (1940-1986), December 16, 1952, http://www.proquest.com; Railroad Video Productions, Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay; Box 5, Book 19, Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries; Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay.
 “Sea Cliff Wins Bout with LIRR; PSC Orders RR to Install Gates,” Newsday (1940-1986), April 24, 1953, http://www.proquest.com.
 “Long Island Rail Road: Alphabetical Station Listing and History,” Trains are Fun, accessed March 28, 2015, http://www.trainsarefun.com/lirrphotos/LIRR%20Station%20History.htm; Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay.
 “LIRR to Paint Depots to Riders’ Orders,” Newsday (1940-1986), April 28, 1960, http://www.proquest.com; Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay.
 “LIRR Authorized to Modify Part-Carload Freight Service,” Patchogue Advance, February 4, 1960, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com; Marie Cocco, “LIRR Updates Freight Car Repairs,” Newsday (1940-1988), May 6, 1982, http://www.proquest.com.
 “More Parking Space Promised in Glen Head,” Newsday (1940-1986), February 13, 1961, http://www.proquest.com; Ziel and Wettereau, Victorian Railroad Stations of Long Island, 75; Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay.
 Tony Schaeffer, “$2 Fine at More Stations,” Newsday (Combined Editions), October 22, 1991, http://www.proquest.com.
 Ed McCoyd, “LIRR Alters Ticket Hours,” Newsday (Nassau and Suffolk Edition), July 23, 1992, http://www.proquest.com.
 Andrew Smith, “Audit: LIRR Ticket Setup Wasteful,” Newsday (Nassau Edition), May 6, 1994, http://www.proquest.com.
 Carol Paquette, “L.I.R.R. Moving to Drop 32 more Ticket Windows,” New York Times (1923-Current file), January 14, 1996, http://www.proquest.com.
 Stewart Ain, “Ticket Agents now Helping Riders Use Machines,” New York Times (1923-Current file), August 4, 1996, http://www.proquest.com.
 “Long Island Rail Road Ticket Vendors out Again,” Suffolk County News, September 12, 1996, http://apa3.olivesoftware.com.
 Phil Mintz, “LIRR Machines replace Vendors,” Newsday (Combined Editions), November 7, 1996, http://www.proquest.com.
 Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection, Box 13, Special Collections, Stony Brook University Libraries, Effective October 16, 1911, Long Island Rail Road, Time Tables, by Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1911), Oyster Bay Branch.
 Long Island Rail Road, Long Island Rail Road Time Tables, Schedule in effect 2:00 AM September 20, 1942 (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1942).
 “Walk a Little Bit, Sit Less: LIRR to Riders,” Newsday (1940-1986), June 12, 1951, http://www.proquest.com.
 Long Island Rail Road, Schedule in effect September 9, 1951, Long Island Rail Road, William H. Draper, Jr., Trustee, Time Tables (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1951), Oyster Bay Branch.
 Long Island Rail Road, LIRR Richmond Hill Commemorative Timetable for Service between All Stations Long Island City to Jamaica via Montauk Branch, 1973 (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1973).
 The Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 20, 1974, Oyster Bay Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1974).
 The Long Island Rail Road, Effective February 10, 1975, Oyster Bay Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1975).
 The Long Island Rail Road, Effective May 23, 1977, Oyster Bay Branch, The Long Island Rail Road (New York: The Long Island Rail Road, 1977).
 MTA Long Island Rail Road, Long Island Rail Road Timetable No. 5 Appendix A General Notices, effective May 22, 1978 (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1978), Oyster Bay Branch.
 Long Island Rail Road, Effective November 17, 1997, Oyster Bay Branch, Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1997).
 “Fight to Keep Glen Street Station Open,” Gold Coast Gazette, January 2, 1997.
 Association of Realtors of the City of Glen Cove Make Demand of LIRR,” Gold Coast Gazette, September 11, 1997; John C. O’Connell, “Demands Made of LIRR for Better Service,” Gold Coast Gazette, September 18, 1997.
 Sidney C. Schaer, “A Weekly Guide to the Roads and Rails on Long Island/Stop & Go/The Rail Rider, Station/Closings to Keep LIRR Upgrades on Track,” Newsday (All Editions), January 12, 1997, http://www.proquest.com.
 “Fight to Keep Glen Street Station Open”; John T. McQuiston, “Annoyance at L.I.R.R. Plan to Shut Stations,” New York Times (1923-Current file), February 24, 1996, http://www.proquest.com.
 Sidney C. Schaer, “Round 2 for LIRR Closure Hearings,” Newsday (Combined Editions), January 22, 1997, http://www.proquest.com.
 Sidney C. Schaer and Tom Demoretcky, “Reprieve for Glen Street Station?, Gulotta Announces Agreement with MTA,” Newsday (Nassau and Suffolk Edition), January 15, 1997, http://www.proquest.com.
 Sylvia Adcock, “Deal Keeps Glen Street LIRR Station Open,” Newsday (Combined Editions), March 7, 1997, http://www.proquest.com; Sidney C. Schaer, “LIRR Shutdowns OKd/MTA Approval Given to Close 10 Stations ,” Newsday (Nassau and Suffolk Edition), March 28, 1997, http://www.proquest.com; Mitchell Freedman, “LIRR Scaling Back / 10 Little-used Stations to Close in March,” Newsday (Combined Editions), February 24, 1998, http://www.proquest.com.
 MTA Long Island Rail Road, Timetable No.1, effective: 12:01 a.m. Monday, June 18, 2001 for the Government of Employees Only (MTA Long Island Rail Road: New York, 2001); AviationMetalSmith, “Long Island Railroad-Glen Head Station,” Youtube, accessed March 21, 2015; Box 5, Book 19, Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection; Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay.
 “New LIRR Schedules in Effect March 16,” Mineola American, March 11, 1998.
 “Station Restoration on Track,” Gold Coast Gazette, August 7, 1997; Rhoda Amon, “Time Machine/Then & Now/A Graceful Old Station’s Arrival,” Newsday (Combined Editions), August 6, 2000, http://www.proquest.com.
 W. Michael Shaffer, “Letter: Glen Street RR Station an Insult,” Glen Cove Record Pilot, January 1, 1999; Box 5, Book 19, Robert M. Emery Long Island Rail Road Collection; Long Island Rail Road: Jamaica to Oyster Bay.
 Steve Gonzalez, “Letter: Glen Street Station Needs Attention,” Glen Cove Record Pilot, November 6, 1998.
 Shaffer, “Letter: Glen Street RR Station an Insult.”
 Jennifer Maloney, “Narrowing the Gaps, LIRR Says it has Fixed 60 Percent of Widest Trouble Spots and Expects to Reduce Most by September,” Newsday (Combined editions), April 4, 2007, http://www.proquest.com.
 Shaffer, “Letter: Glen Street RR Station an Insult.”
 Long Island Rail Road, Effective September 13, 1999, Oyster Bay Branch, Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1999); Long Island Rail Road, Effective November 15, 1999, Oyster Bay Branch, Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 1999).
 Long Island Rail Road, Effective March 20, 2000, Oyster Bay Branch, Long Island Rail Road (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 2000).
 MTA Long Island Rail Road, Effective March 2 – May 17, 2015, Oyster Bay Branch Timetable (New York: Long Island Rail Road, 2015).
 Adam Ramadan, “Letters to the Editor: More Express Trains Needed On Oyster Bay Line,” Glen Cove Record Pilot, December 17, 2014.
 Dagmar Fors Karppi, “Are the ‘Scoot Trains’ Coming,” Glen Cove Record Pilot, October 9, 2013.